University of Oulu

Aguilar, M., Cavasonza, L. A., Allen, M. S., Alpat, B., Ambrosi, G., Arruda, L., Attig, N., Barao, F., Barrin, L., Bartoloni, A., Başeğmez-du Pree, S., Battiston, R., Behlmann, M., Beranek, B., Berdugo, J., Bertucci, B., Bindi, V., Bollweg, K., … Borgia, B. (2021). Properties of Heavy Secondary Fluorine Cosmic Rays: Results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. Physical Review Letters, 126(8).

Properties of heavy secondary fluorine cosmic rays : results from the alpha magnetic spectrometer

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Author: Aguilar, M.1; Cavasonza, L. Ali2,3; Allen, M. S.4;
Alpat, B.5; Ambrosi, G.5; Arruda, L.6; Attig, N.7,8; Barao, F.6; Barrin, L.9; Bartoloni, A.10; Basegmez-du Pree, S.11; Battiston, R.12,13; Behlmann, M.4; Beranek, B.2,3; Berdugo, J.1; Bertucci, B.5,14; Bindi, V15; Bollweg, K.16; Borgia, B.10,17; Boschini, M. J.18; Bourquin, M.19; Bueno, E. F.11; Burger, J.4; Burger, W. J.12; Burmeister, S.20; Cai, X. D.4; Capell, M.4; Casaus, J.1; Castellini, G.21; Cervelli, F.22; Chang, Y. H.23,24,25; Chen, G. M.26,27; Chen, G. R.28; Chen, H. S.26,27; Chen, Y.19,28; Cheng, L.28; Chou, H. Y.24,25; Chouridou, S.2,3; Choutko, V4; Chung, C. H.2,3; Clark, C.4,16; Coignet, G.29; Consolandi, C.15; Contin, A.30,31; Corti, C.15; Cui, Z.32,28; Dadzie, K.4; Delgado, C.1; Della Torre, S.18; Demirkoz, M. B.33; Derome, L.34; Di Falco, S.22; Di Felice, V35; Diaz, C.1; Dimiccoli, F.12; von Doetinchem, P.15; Dong, F.36; Donnini, F.35; Duranti, M.5; Egorov, A.4; Eline, A.4; Feng, J.4; Fiandrini, E.5,14; Fisher, P.4; Formato, V35; Freeman, C.15; Galaktionov, Y.4; Gamez, C.1; Garcia-Lopez, R. J.37,38; Gargiulo, C.9; Gast, H.2,3; Gervasi, M.18,39; Giovacchini, F.1; Gomez-Coral, D. M.15; Gong, J.36; Goy, C.29; Grabski, V40; Grandi, D.18,39; Graziani, M.5,14; Haino, S.23; Han, K. C.41; Hashmani, R. K.33; He, Z. H.42; Heber, B.20; Hsieh, T. H.4; Hu, J. Y.26,27; Incagli, M.22; Jang, W. Y.43; Jia, Yi4; Jinchi, H.41; Kanishev, K.12; Khiali, B.35; Kim, G. N.43; Kirn, Th2,3; Konyushikhin, M.4; Kounina, O.4; Kounine, A.4; Koutsenko, V4; Kuhlman, A.15; Kulemzin, A.4; La Vacca, G.18,39; Laudi, E.9; Laurenti, G.30; Lazzizzera, I12,13; Lebedev, A.4; Lee, H. T.44; Lee, S. C.23; Li, J. Q.36; Li, M.2,3; Li, Q.36; Li, S.2,3; Li, J. H.32; Li, Z. H.26,27; Liang, J.32; Light, C.15; Lin, C. H.23; Lippert, T.7,8; Liu, J. H.45; Liu, Z.19; Lu, S. Q.23; Lu, Y. S.26; Luebelsmeyer, K.2,3; Luo, J. Z.36; Luo, Xi28; Lyu, S. S.42; Machate, F.2,3; Mana, C.1; Marin, J.1; Marquardt, J.20; Martin, T.4,16; Martinez, G.1; Masi, N.30,31; Maurin, D.34; Menchaca-Rocha, A.40; Meng, Q.36; Mikhailov, V. V.46; Mo, D. C.42; Molero, M.1; Mott, P.4,16; Mussolin, L.5,14; Negrete, J.15; Nikonov, N.2,3; Nozzoli, F.12; Oliva, A.30; Orcinha, M.6; Palermo, M.15; Palmonari, F.30,31; Paniccia, M.19; Pashnin, A.4; Pauluzzi, M.5,14; Pensotti, S.18,39; Phan, H. D.4; Piandani, R.47; Plyaskin, V4; Poluianov, S.48,49; Qin, X.4; Qu, Z. Y.23; Quadrani, L.30,31; Rancoita, P. G.18; Rapin, D.19; Conde, A. Reina37,38; Robyn, E.19; Rosier-Lees, S.29; Rozhkov, A.4; Rozza, D.18,39; Sagdeev, R.50; Schael, S.2,3; von Dratzig, A. Schulz2,3; Schwering, G.2,3; Seo, E. S.51; Shakfa, Z.33; Shan, B. S.52; Siedenburg, T.2,3; Solano, C.4; Song, J. W.32; Song, X. J.28; Sonnabend, R.2,3; Strigari, L.10; Su, T.28; Sun, Q.32; Sun, Z. T.26,27; Tacconi, M.18,39; Tang, X. W.26; Tang, Z. C.26; Tian, J.5,14; Ting, Samuel C. C.4,9; Ting, S. M.4; Tomassetti, N.5,14; Torsti, J.53; Tuysuz, C.33; Urban, T.4,16; Usoskin, I48,49; Vagelli, V.5,54; Vainio, R.53; Valencia-Otero, M.24,25; Valente, E.10,17; Valtonen, E.53; Vazquez Acosta, M.37,38; Vecchi, M.11; Velasco, M.1; Vialle, J. P.29; Wang, C. X.32; Wang, L.45,32; Wang, L. Q.32; Wang, N. H.32; Wang, Q. L.45; Wang, S.15; Wang, X.4; Wang, Yu32; Wang, Z. M.28; Wei, J.19; Weng, Z. L.4; Wu, H.36; Xiong, R. Q.36; Xu, W.32,28; Yan, Q.4; Yang, Y.55; Yashin, I. I.46; Yi, H.36; Yu, Y. M.42; Yu, Z. Q.26; Zannoni, M.18,39; Zhang, C.26; Zhang, F.26,27; Zhang, F. Z.26,27; Zhang, J. H.36; Zhang, Z.4; Zhao, F.26,27; Zheng, C.28; Zheng, Z. M.52; Zhuang, H. L.26; Zhukov, V2,3; Zichichi, A.30,31; Zuccon, P.12,13
Organizations: 1Ctr Invest Energet Medioambientales & Tecnol CIEM, Madrid 28040, Spain.
2Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 1, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
3Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, JARA FAME, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
4MIT, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
5Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06100 Perugia, Italy.
6Lab Instrumentacao & Fis Expt Particulas LIP, P-1649003 Lisbon, Portugal.
7Res Ctr Julich, Julich Supercomp Ctr, D-52425 Julich, Germany.
8Res Ctr Julich, JARA FAME, D-52425 Julich, Germany.
9European Org Nucl Res CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
10Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma 1, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
11Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, POB 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands.
12INFN TIFPA, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy.
13Univ Trento, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy.
14Univ Perugia, I-06100 Perugia, Italy.
15Univ Hawaii, Phys & Astron Dept, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
16NASA, Johnson Space Ctr JSC, Houston, TX 77058 USA.
17Univ Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
18Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milan, Italy.
19Univ Geneva, DPNC, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
20Christian Alberts Univ Kiel, Inst Expt & Angew Phys, D-24118 Kiel, Germany.
21CNR IROE, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
22Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56100 Pisa, Italy.
23Acad Sinica, Inst Phys, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
24Natl Cent Univ NCU, Phys Dept, Taoyuan 32054, Taiwan.
25Natl Cent Univ NCU, Ctr High Energy & High Field Phys, Taoyuan 32054, Taiwan.
26Chinese Acad Sci, Inst High Energy Phys IHEP, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
27Univ Chinese Acad Sci UCAS, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
28Shandong Inst Adv Technol SDIAT, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
29Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, LAPP IN2P3, F-74000 Annecy, France.
30Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bologna, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
31Univ Bologna, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
32Shandong Univ SDU, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
33Middle East Tech Univ METU, Dept Phys, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey.
34Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LPSC IN2P3, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
35Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
36Southeast Univ SEU, Nanjing 210096, Peoples R China.
37Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, San Cristobal la Laguna 38205, Spain.
38Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, San Cristobal la Laguna 38206, Spain.
39Univ Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milan, Italy.
40Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Ciudad De Mexico 01000, Mexico.
41Natl Chung Shan Inst Sci & Technol NCSIST, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan.
42Sun Yat Sen Univ SYSU, Guangzhou 510275, Peoples R China.
43Kyungpook Natl Univ, CHEP, Daegu 41566, South Korea.
44Acad Sinica, Grid Ctr ASGC, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
45Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Elect Engn IEE, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China.
46NRNU MEPhI Moscow Engn Phys Inst, Moscow 115409, Russia.
47Karlsruhe Inst Technol KIT, Inst Expt Teilchenphys, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.
48Univ Oulu, Sodankyla Geophys Observ, Oulu 90014, Finland.
49Univ Oulu, Space Phys & Astron Res Unit, Oulu 90014, Finland.
50Univ Maryland, East West Ctr Space Sci, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
51Univ Maryland, IPST, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
52Beihang Univ BUAA, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
53Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Space Res Lab, Turku 20014, Finland.
54Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
55Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Tainan 70101, Taiwan.
Format: article
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Language: English
Published: American Physical Society, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-06-21


Precise knowledge of the charge and rigidity dependence of the secondary cosmic ray fluxes and the secondary-to-primary flux ratios is essential in the understanding of cosmic ray propagation. We report the properties of heavy secondary cosmic ray fluorine F in the rigidity \(R\) range 2.15 GV to 2.9 TV based on 0.29 million events collected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment on the International Space Station. The fluorine spectrum deviates from a single power law above 200 GV. The heavier secondary-to-primary F/Si flux ratio rigidity dependence is distinctly different from the lighter B/O (or B/C) rigidity dependence. In particular, above 10 GV, the \(\frac{F/Si}{B/O}\) ratio can be described by a power law \(R^{δ}\) with \(δ\)=0.052±0.007. This shows that the propagation properties of heavy cosmic rays, from F to Si, are different from those of light cosmic rays, from He to O, and that the secondary cosmic rays have two classes.

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Series: Physical review letters
ISSN: 0031-9007
ISSN-E: 1079-7114
ISSN-L: 0031-9007
Volume: 126
Issue: 8
Article number: 081102
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.081102
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: We are grateful for important physics discussions with Pasquale Blasi, Fiorenza Donato, Jonathan Feng, and Igor Moskalenko. We thank former NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin for his dedication to the legacy of the ISS as a scientific laboratory and his decision for NASA to fly AMS as a DOE payload. We also acknowledge the continuous support of the NASA leadership, particularly William H. Gerstenmaier, and of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) flight control teams that have allowed AMS to operate optimally on the ISS for over nine years. We are grateful for the support of Jim Siegrist, Glen Crawford, and their staff of the DOE including resources from the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. We gratefully acknowledge the strong support from CERN including Fabiola Gianotti, and the CERN IT department including Bernd Panzer-Steindel, and from the European Space Agency including Johann-Dietrich Wörner and Simonetta Di Pippo. We also acknowledge the continuous support from MIT and its School of Science, Michael Sipser, and the Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Boleslaw Wyslouch. Research supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Institute of Electrical Engineering, China Academy of Space Technology, National Natural Science Foundation, and Ministry of Science and Technology, the China Scholarship Council, the provincial governments of Shandong, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong University, and the Shandong Institute of Advanced Technology, China; the Academy of Finland, Project No. 321882, Finland; CNRS/IN2P3 and CNES, France; DLR under Grants No. 50OO1403 and No. 50OO1805 and computing support on the JARA Partition of the RWTH Aachen supercomputer, Germany; INFN and ASI under ASI-INFN Agreements No. 2014-037-R.1-2017 and No. 2019-19-HH.0 and ASI-University of Perugia Agreement No. 2019-2-HH.0, Italy; CHEP and NRF under Grant No. NRF-2018R1A6A1A06024970 at Kyungpook National University, Korea; the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología and UNAM, Mexico; NWO under Grant No. 680-1-004, Netherlands; FCT under Grant No. CERN/FIS-PAR/0013/2019, Portugal; the Ministry of Science and Higher Education under Project No. 0723-2020-0040, Russia; CIEMAT, IAC, CDTI, and SEIDI-MINECO under Grants No. PID2019–107988 GB-C21/C22, No. CEX2019-000920-S, and No. MDM-2015-0509, Spain; the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), federal and cantonal authorities, and the Fondation Dr. Manfred Steuer, Switzerland; Academia Sinica and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) under Grants No. 107-2119-M-006-015-MY3, No. 109-2112-M-001-029, and No. CDA-105-M06, former Presidents of Academia Sinica Yuan-Tseh Lee and Chi-Huey Wong and former Ministers of MOST Maw-Kuen Wu and Luo-Chuan Lee, Taiwan; the Turkish Energy, Nuclear and Mineral Research Agency (TENMAK) under Grant No. 2020TAEK(CERN)A5.H1.F5-26, Turkey; and NSF Grants No. 1455202 and No. 1551980, Wyle Laboratories Grant No. 2014/T72497, and NASA NESSF Grant No. HELIO15F-0005, USA.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 321882
Detailed Information: 321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI.