University of Oulu

Laundal, K. M., Yee, J. H., Merkin, V. G., Gjerloev, J. W., Vanhamäki, H., Reistad, J. P., et al. (2021). Electrojet estimates from mesospheric magnetic field measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 126, e2020JA028644.

Electrojet estimates from mesospheric magnetic field measurements

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Author: Laundal, K. M.1; Yee, J. H.2; Merkin, V. G.2;
Organizations: 1Birkeland Centre for Space Science, University in Bergen, Bergen, Norway
2Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD, USA
3Space Physics and Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Birkeland Centre for Space Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Bergen, Norway
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Geophysical Union, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-06-29


The auroral electrojet is traditionally measured remotely with magnetometers on ground or in low Earth orbit (LEO). The sparse distribution of measurements, combined with a vertical distance of some 100 km to ground and typically >300 km to LEO satellites, means that smaller scale sizes can't be detected. Because of this, our understanding of the spatiotemporal characteristics of the electrojet is incomplete. Recent advances in measurement technology give hope of overcoming these limitations by multi-point remote detections of the magnetic field in the mesosphere, very close to the electrojet. We present a prediction of the magnitude of these disturbances, inferred from the spatiotemporal characteristics of magnetic field-aligned currents. We also discuss how Zeeman magnetic field sensors (Yee et al., 2021) onboard the Electrojet Zeeman Imaging Explorer satellites will be used to essentially image the equivalent current at unprecedented spatial resolution. The electrojet imaging is demonstrated by combining carefully simulated measurements with a spherical elementary current representation using a novel inversion scheme.

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Series: Journal of geophysical research. Space physics
ISSN: 2169-9380
ISSN-E: 2169-9402
ISSN-L: 2169-9380
Volume: 126
Issue: 5
Article number: e2020JA028644
DOI: 10.1029/2020JA028644
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
114 Physical sciences
Funding: K. M. Laundal, J. P. Reistad, and M. Madelaire are supported by the Research Council of Norway/CoE under contracts 223252/F50 and 300844/F50, and by the Trond Mohn Foundation. H. Vanhamäki was supported by Academy of Finland project 314664. V. G. Merkin and K. A. Sorathia acknowledge support from the NASA DRIVE Science Center for Geospace Storms (CGS) under Grant 80NSSC20K0601. The authors gratefully acknowledge the work done by the EZIE mission concept team in support of this study.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 314664
Detailed Information: 314664 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2021. The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.