University of Oulu

Menchetti, M., Talavera, G., Cini, A., Salvati, V., Dincă, V., Platania, L., Bonelli, S., Balletto, E., Vila, R. and Dapporto, L. (2021), Two ways to be endemic. Alps and Apennines are different functional refugia during climatic cycles. Mol Ecol, 30: 1297-1310. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.15795

Two ways to be endemic : Alps and Apennines are different functional refugia during climatic cycles

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Author: Menchetti, Mattia1,2; Talavera, Gerard3; Cini, Alessandro1,4;
Organizations: 1ZEN Laboratory, Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
2Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (CSIC –Universitat Pompeu Fabra), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
3Institut Botànic de Barcelona (IBB, CSIC-Ajuntament de Barcelona), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
4Centre for Biodiversity & Environment Research, University College London, London, UK
5Ecology and Genetics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
6ZOOLAB, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e Biologia dei Sistemi, Università degli Studi di Torino, Turin, Italy
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: embargoed
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2021070541106
Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-01-09
Description:

Abstract

Endemics co-occur because they evolved in situ and persist regionally or because they evolved ex situ and later dispersed to shared habitats, generating evolutionary or ecological endemicity centres, respectively. We investigate whether different endemicity centres can intertwine in the region ranging from Alps to Sicily, by studying their butterfly fauna. We gathered an extensive occurrence data set for butterflies of the study area (27,123 records, 269 species, in cells of 0.5 × 0.5 degrees of latitude-longitude). We applied molecular-based delimitation methods (GMYC model) to 26,557 cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) sequences of Western Palearctic butterflies. We identified entities based on molecular delimitations and/or the checklist of European butterflies and objectively attributed occurrences to their most probable entity. We obtained a zoogeographic regionalisation based on the 69 endemics of the area. Using phylogenetic ANOVA we tested if endemics from different centres differ from each other and from nonendemics for key ecological traits and divergence time. Endemicity showed high incidence in the Alps and Southern Italy. The regionalisation separated the Alps from the Italian Peninsula and Sicily. The endemics of different centres showed a high turnover and differed in phylogenetic distances, phenology and distribution traits. Endemics are on average younger than nonendemics and the Peninsula-Sicily endemics also have lower variance in divergence than those from the Alps. The observed variation identifies Alpine endemics as paleoendemics, now occupying an ecological centre, and the Peninsula-Sicily ones as neoendemics, that diverged in the region since the Pleistocene. The results challenge the common view of the Alpine-Apennine area as a single “Italian refugium”.

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Series: Molecular ecology
ISSN: 0962-1083
ISSN-E: 1365-294X
ISSN-L: 0962-1083
Volume: 30
Issue: 5
Pages: 1297 - 1310
DOI: 10.1111/mec.15795
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.1111/mec.15795
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
Subjects:
Funding: Support for this research was provided by ‘La Caixa’ Foundation (ID 100010434) to MM (grant LCF/BQ/DR20/11790020), the Ramón y Cajal program of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation to GT (RYC2018-025335-I), the Academy of Finland to VD (Academy Research Fellow, decision no. 328895), by project PID2019-107078GB-I00/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 to RV and by the projects "Ricerca e conservazione sui lepidotteri diurni di sei Parchi Nazionali dell’Appennino centro-settentrionale”, “Ricerca e conservazione sugli Impollinatori dell’Arcipelago Toscano e divulgazione sui Lepidotteri del parco” and “Servizio di attuazione delle azioni per la protezione degli impollinatori e diffusione dell’entomofauna del Parco Nazionale dell'Alta Murgia” to LD.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 328895
Detailed Information: 328895 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Dataset Reference: R scripts and data to replicate the analysis are available in Dryad https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.tb2rbnzzf. Previously published and newly generated COI data are also available in Dryad and in the DS-ALPAPENN BOLD project at https://www.boldsystems.org/ where the GenBank accession codes are also reported.
  https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.tb2rbnzzf
https://www.boldsystems.org/
Copyright information: © 2021 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Menchetti, M., Talavera, G., Cini, A., Salvati, V., Dincă, V., Platania, L., Bonelli, S., Balletto, E., Vila, R. and Dapporto, L. (2021), Two ways to be endemic. Alps and Apennines are different functional refugia during climatic cycles. Mol Ecol, 30: 1297-1310. The final authenticated version is available online at https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.15795.