University of Oulu

Kamal, R.; Kharbach, M.; Heyden, Y.V.; Yu, H.; Bouklouze, A.; Cherrah, Y.; Alaoui, K. In Vitro & In Vivo Anti-Hyperglycemic Potential of Saponins Cake and Argan Oil from Argania spinosa. Foods 2021, 10, 1078.

In vitro & in vivo anti-hyperglycemic potential of saponins cake and Argan oil from Argania spinosa

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Author: Kamal, Rabie1,2; Kharbach, Mourad3,4; Heyden, Yvan Vander3;
Organizations: 1Pharmacodynamic Research Team ERP, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University, Rabat BP 6203, Rabat Instituts, Rabat 10100, Morocco
2Clinical Research Management (MBA), IU–International University of Applied Sciences, Kaiserplatz 1, 83435 Bad Reichenhall, Germany
3Department of Analytical Chemistry Applied Chemometrics and Molecular Modelling, CePhaR, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels, Belgium
4Research Unit of Mathematical Sciences, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
5Chemometrics and Analytical Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 26, 1958 Frederiksberg, Denmark
6Bio-Pharmaceutical and Toxicological Analysis Research Team, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University Mohammed V, Rabat BP 6203, Rabat Instituts, Rabat 10100, Morocco
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-07-06


The Argan tree (Argania spinosa. L) is an evergreen tree endemic of southwestern Morocco. For centuries, various formulations have been used to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, scientific results supporting these actions are needed. Hence, Argan fruit products (i.e., cake byproducts (saponins extract) and hand pressed Argan oil) were tested for their in-vitro anti-hyperglycemic activity, using α-glucosidase and α-amylase assays. The in-vivo anti-hyperglycemic activity was evaluated in a model of alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The diabetic animals were orally administered 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous saponins cake extract and 3 mL/kg of Argan oil, respectively, to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effect. The blood glucose concentration and body weight of the experimental animals were monitored for 30 days. The chemical properties and composition of the Argan oil were assessed including acidity, peroxides, K232, K270, fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols, total polyphenols, and phenolic compounds. The saponins cake extract produced a significant reduction in blood glucose concentration in diabetic mice, which was better than the Argan oil. This decrease was equivalent to that detected in mice treated with metformin after 2–4 weeks. Moreover, the saponins cake extract showed a strong inhibitory action on α-amylase and α-glucosidase, which is also higher than that of Argan oil.

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Series: Foods
ISSN: 2304-8158
ISSN-E: 2304-8158
ISSN-L: 2304-8158
Volume: 10
Issue: 5
Article number: 1078
DOI: 10.3390/foods10051078
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 415 Other agricultural sciences
Funding: Mohammed VI Foundation for Research and Protection of the Argan Tree. Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Rabat (FMPR). VLIR-UOS (Team project-VLIR 345 MA2017), the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB).
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (