University of Oulu

H.E.S.S. and MAGIC observations of a sudden cessation of a very-high-energy γ-ray flare in PKS 1510−089 in May 2016. H.E.S.S. Collaboration, H. Abdalla, R. Adam, F. Aharonian, F. Ait Benkhali, E. O. Angüner, C. Arcaro, C. Armand, T. Armstrong, H. Ashkar, M. Backes, V. Baghmanyan, V. Barbosa Martins, A. Barnacka, M. Barnard, Y. Becherini, D. Berge, K. Bernlöhr, B. Bi, M. Böttcher, C. Boisson, J. Bolmont, S. Bonnefoy, M. de Bony de Lavergne, J. Bregeon, M. Breuhaus, F. Brun, P. Brun, M. Bryan, M. Büchele, T. Bulik, T. Bylund, S. Caroff, A. Carosi, S. Casanova, T. Chand, S. Chandra, A. Chen, G. Cotter, M. Curyło, J. Damascene Mbarubucyeye, I. D. Davids, J. Davies, C. Deil, J. Devin, P. deWilt, L. Dirson, A. Djannati-Ataï, A. Dmytriiev, A. Donath, V. Doroshenko, J. Dyks, K. Egberts, F. Eichhorn, S. Einecke, G. Emery, J.-P. Ernenwein, K. Feijen, S. Fegan, A. Fiasson, G. Fichet de Clairfontaine, M. Filipovic, G. Fontaine, S. Funk, M. Füßling, S. Gabici, Y. A. Gallant, G. Giavitto, L. Giunti, D. Glawion, J. F. Glicenstein, D. Gottschall, M.-H. Grondin, J. Hahn, M. Haupt, G. Hermann, J. A. Hinton, W. Hofmann, C. Hoischen, T. L. Holch, M. Holler, M. Hörbe, D. Horns, D. Huber, M. Jamrozy, D. Jankowsky, F. Jankowsky, A. Jardin-Blicq, V. Joshi, I. Jung-Richardt, M. A. Kastendieck, K. Katarzyński, U. Katz, D. Khangulyan, B. Khélifi, S. Klepser, W. Kluźniak, Nu. Komin, R. Konno, K. Kosack, D. Kostunin, M. Kreter, G. Lamanna, A. Lemière, M. Lemoine-Goumard, J.-P. Lenain, C. Levy, T. Lohse, I. Lypova, J. Mackey, J. Majumdar, D. Malyshev, D. Malyshev, V. Marandon, P. Marchegiani, A. Marcowith, A. Mares, G. Martí-Devesa, R. Marx, G. Maurin, P. J. Meintjes, M. Meyer, A. M. W. Mitchell, R. Moderski, M. Mohamed, L. Mohrmann, A. Montanari, C. Moore, P. Morris, E. Moulin, J. Muller, T. Murach, K. Nakashima, A. Nayerhoda, M. de Naurois, H. Ndiyavala, F. Niederwanger, J. Niemiec, L. Oakes, P. O’Brien, H. Odaka, S. Ohm, L. Olivera-Nieto, E. de Ona Wilhelmi, M. Ostrowski, M. Panter, S. Panny, R. D. Parsons, G. Peron, B. Peyaud, Q. Piel, S. Pita, V. Poireau, A. Priyana Noel, D. A. Prokhorov, H. Prokoph, G. Pühlhofer, M. Punch, A. Quirrenbach, S. Raab, R. Rauth, P. Reichherzer, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, Q. Remy, M. Renaud, F. Rieger, L. Rinchiuso, C. Romoli, G. Rowell, B. Rudak, E. Ruiz-Velasco, V. Sahakian, S. Sailer, D. A. Sanchez, A. Santangelo, M. Sasaki, M. Scalici, F. Schüssler, H. M. Schutte, U. Schwanke, S. Schwemmer, M. Seglar-Arroyo, M. Senniappan, A. S. Seyffert, N. Shafi, K. Shiningayamwe, R. Simoni, A. Sinha, H. Sol, A. Specovius, S. Spencer, M. Spir-Jacob, Ł. Stawarz, L. Sun, R. Steenkamp, C. Stegmann, S. Steinmassl, C. Steppa, T. Takahashi, T. Tavernier, A. M. Taylor, R. Terrier, D. Tiziani, M. Tluczykont, L. Tomankova, C. Trichard, M. Tsirou, R. Tuffs, Y. Uchiyama, D. J. van der Walt, C. van Eldik, C. van Rensburg, B. van Soelen, G. Vasileiadis, J. Veh, C. Venter, P. Vincent, J. Vink, H. J. Völk, T. Vuillaume, Z. Wadiasingh, S. J. Wagner, J. Watson, F. Werner, R. White, A. Wierzcholska, Yu. W. Wong, A. Yusafzai, M. Zacharias, R. Zanin, D. Zargaryan, A. A. Zdziarski, A. Zech, S. J. Zhu, J. Zorn, S. Zouari, N. Żywucka, MAGIC Collaboration, V. A. Acciari, S. Ansoldi, L. A. Antonelli, A. Arbet Engels, K. Asano, D. Baack, A. Babić, A. Baquero, U. Barres de Almeida, J. A. Barrio, J. Becerra González, W. Bednarek, L. Bellizzi, E. Bernardini, A. Berti, J. Besenrieder, W. Bhattacharyya, C. Bigongiari, A. Biland, O. Blanch, G. Bonnoli, Ž. Bošnjak, G. Busetto, R. Carosi, G. Ceribella, M. Cerruti, Y. Chai, A. Chilingarian, S. Cikota, S. M. Colak, U. Colin, E. Colombo, J. L. Contreras, J. Cortina, S. Covino, G. D’Amico, V. D’Elia, P. Da Vela, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, B. De Lotto, M. Delfino, J. Delgado, D. Depaoli, F. Di Pierro, L. Di Venere, E. Do Souto Espiñeira, D. Dominis Prester, A. Donini, D. Dorner, M. Doro, D. Elsaesser, V. Fallah Ramazani, A. Fattorini, G. Ferrara, L. Foffano, M. V. Fonseca, L. Font, C. Fruck, S. Fukami, R. J. García López, M. Garczarczyk, S. Gasparyan, M. Gaug, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, P. Gliwny, N. Godinović, D. Green, D. Hadasch, A. Hahn, L. Heckmann, J. Herrera, J. Hoang, D. Hrupec, M. Hütten, T. Inada, S. Inoue, K. Ishio, Y. Iwamura, L. Jouvin, Y. Kajiwara, M. Karjalainen, D. Kerszberg, Y. Kobayashi, H. Kubo, J. Kushida, A. Lamastra, D. Lelas, F. Leone, E. Lindfors, S. Lombardi, F. Longo, M. López, R. López-Coto, A. López-Oramas, S. Loporchio, B. Machado de Oliveira Fraga, C. Maggio, P. Majumdar, M. Makariev, M. Mallamaci, G. Maneva, M. Manganaro, K. Mannheim, L. Maraschi, M. Mariotti, M. Martínez, D. Mazin, S. Mender, S. Mićanović, D. Miceli, T. Miener, M. Minev, J. M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, E. Molina, A. Moralejo, D. Morcuende, V. Moreno, E. Moretti, P. Munar-Adrover, V. Neustroev, C. Nigro, K. Nilsson, D. Ninci, K. Nishijima, K. Noda, S. Nozaki, Y. Ohtani, T. Oka, J. Otero-Santos, M. Palatiello, D. Paneque, R. Paoletti, J. M. Paredes, L. Pavletić, P. Peñil, C. Perennes, M. Persic, P. G. Prada Moroni, E. Prandini, C. Priyadarshi, I. Puljak, W. Rhode, M. Ribó, J. Rico, C. Righi, A. Rugliancich, L. Saha, N. Sahakyan, T. Saito, S. Sakurai, K. Satalecka, B. Schleicher, K. Schmidt, T. Schweizer, J. Sitarek, I. Šnidarić, D. Sobczynska, A. Spolon, A. Stamerra, D. Strom, M. Strzys, Y. Suda, T. Surić, M. Takahashi, F. Tavecchio, P. Temnikov, T. Terzić, M. Teshima, N. Torres-Albà, L. Tosti, S. Truzzi, J. van Scherpenberg, G. Vanzo, M. Vazquez Acosta, S. Ventura, V. Verguilov, C. F. Vigorito, V. Vitale, I. Vovk, M. Will, D. Zarić, S. G. Jorstad, A. P. Marscher, B. Boccardi, C. Casadio, J. Hodgson, J.-Y. Kim, T. P. Krichbaum, A. Lähteenmäki, M. Tornikoski, E. Traianou and Z. R. Weaver. A&A, 648 (2021) A23, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202038949

H.E.S.S. and MAGIC observations of a sudden cessation of a very-high-energy γ-ray flare in PKS 1510−089 in May 2016

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Author: Abdalla, H.1; Adam, R.2; Aharonian, F.3,4,5;
Benkhali, F. Ait3; Anguner, E. O.6; Arcaro, C.1; Armand, C.7; Armstrong, T.8; Ashkar, H.9; Backes, M.1,10; Baghmanyan, V11; Martins, V. Barbosa12; Barnacka, A.13; Barnard, M.1; Becherini, Y.14; Berge, D.12; Bernlohr, K.3; Bi, B.15; Bottcher, M.1; Boisson, C.16; Bolmont, J.17; Bonnefoy, S.12; de Lavergne, M. de Bony7; Bregeon, J.18; Breuhaus, M.3; Brun, F.9; Brun, P.9; Bryan, M.19; Buchele, M.20; Bulik, T.21; Bylund, T.14; Caroff, S.17; Carosi, A.7; Casanova, S.3,11; Chand, T.1; Chandra, S.1; Chen, A.22; Cotter, G.8; Mbarubucyeye, J. Damascene12; Davids, I. D.10; Davies, J.8; Deil, C.3; Devin, J.23; DeWilt, P.24; Dirson, L.25; Djannati-Atai, A.26; Dmytriiev, A.16; Donath, A.3; Doroshenko, V15; Dyks, J.27; Egberts, K.28; Eichhorn, F.20; Einecke, S.24; Emery, G.17; Ernenwein, J-P6; Feijen, K.24; Fegan, S.2; Fiasson, A.7; de Clairfontaine, G. Fichet16; Filipovic, M.24; Fontaine, G.2; Funk, S.20; Fuling, M.12; Gabici, S.26; Gallant, Y. A.18; Giavitto, G.12; Giunti, L.9,26; Glawion, D.29; Glicenstein, J. F.9; Gottschall, D.15; Grondin, M-H23; Hahn, J.3; Haupt, M.12; Hermann, G.3; Hinton, J. A.3; Hofmann, W.3; Hoischen, C.28; Holch, T. L.30; Holler, M.31; Horbe, M.8; Horns, D.25; Huber, D.31; Jamrozy, M.13; Jankowsky, D.20; Jankowsky, F.29; Jardin-Blicq, A.3; Joshi, V20; Jung-Richardt, I20; Kastendieck, M. A.25; Katarzynski, K.32; Katz, U.20; Khangulyan, D.33; Khelifi, B.26; Klepser, S.12; Kluzniak, W.27; Komin, Nu22; Konno, R.12; Kosack, K.9; Kostunin, D.12; Kreter, M.1; Lamanna, G.7; Lemiere, A.26; Lemoine-Goumard, M.23; Lenain, J-P17; Levy, C.17; Lohse, T.30; Lypova, I12; Mackey, J.4; Majumdar, J.12; Malyshev, D.15,20; Malyshev, D.15,20; Marandon, V3; Marchegiani, P.22; Marcowith, A.18; Mares, A.23; Marti-Devesa, G.31; Marx, R.3,29; Maurin, G.7; Meintjes, P. J.34; Meyer, M.20; Mitchell, A. M. W.3,35; Moderski, R.27; Mohamed, M.29; Mohrmann, L.20; Montanari, A.9; Moore, C.36; Morris, P.8; Moulin, E.9; Muller, J.2; Murach, T.12; Nakashima, K.20; Nayerhoda, A.11; de Naurois, M.2; Ndiyavala, H.1; Niederwanger, F.31; Niemiec, D.11; Oakes, L.30; O'Brien, P.36; Odaka, H.37; Ohm, S.12; Olivera-Nieto, L.3; Wilhelmi, E. de Ona12; Ostrowski, M.13; Panter, M.3; Panny, S.31; Parsons, R. D.30; Peron, G.3; Peyaud, B.9; Piel, Q.7; Pita, S.26; Poireau, V7; Noel, A. Priyana13; Prokhorov, D. A.19,22; Prokoph, H.12; Puhlhofer, G.15; Punch, M.14,26; Quirrenbach, A.29; Raab, S.20; Rauth, R.31; Reichherzer, P.9; Reimer, A.31; Reimer, O.31; Remy, Q.3; Renaud, M.18; Rieger, F.3; Rinchiuso, L.9; Romoli, C.3; Rowell, G.24; Rudak, B.27; Ruiz-Velasco, E.3; Sahakian, V38; Sailer, S.3; Sanchez, D. A.7; Santangelo, A.15; Sasaki, M.20; Scalici, M.15; Schussler, F.9; Schutte, H. M.1; Schwanke, U.30; Schwemmer, S.29; Seglar-Arroyo, M.9; Senniappan, M.14; Seyffert, A. S.1; Shafi, N.22; Shiningayamwe, K.10; Simoni, R.19; Sinha, A.26; Sol, H.16; Specovius, A.20; Spencer, S.8; Sun, L.19; Steenkamp, R.10; Stegmann, C.28,12; Steinmassl, S.3; Steppa, C.28; Takahashi, T.39; Tavernier, T.9; Taylor, A. M.12; Terrier, R.26; Tiziani, D.20; Tluczykont, M.25; Tomankova, L.20; Trichard, C.2; Tsirou, M.18; Tuffs, R.3; Uchiyama, Y.33; van der Walt, D. J.1; van Eldik, C.20; van Rensburg, C.1; van Soelen, B.34; Vasileiadis, G.18; Veh, J.20; Venter, C.1; Vincent, P.17; Vink, J.19; Volk, H. J.3; Vuillaume, T.7; Wadiasingh, Z.1; Wagner, S. J.29; Watson, J.8; Werner, F.3; White, R.3; Wierzcholska, A.11,29; Wong, Yu W.20; Yusafzai, A.20; Zacharias, M.1; Zanin, R.3; Zargaryan, D.4; Zdziarski, A. A.27; Zech, A.16; Zhu, S. J.12; Zorn, J.3; Zouari, S.26; Acciari, V. A.40; Ansoldi, S.41,42,43; Antonelli, L. A.44; Engels, A. Arbet45; Asano, K.43; Baack, D.46; Babic, A.47,48,49,50,51; Baquero, A.52; de Almeida, U. Barres53; Barrio, J. A.52; Gonzalez, J. Becerra40; Bednarek, W.54; Bellizzi, L.55,56; Bernardini, E.12,57,58; Berti, A.59; Besenrieder, J.60; Bhattacharyya, W.12; Bigongiari, C.44; Biland, A.45; Blanch, O.61; Bonnoli, G.55,56; Busetto, G.57,58; Carosi, R.62; Ceribella, G.60; Cerruti, M.63; Chai, Y.60; Chilingarian, A.64; Cikota, S.47,48,49,50,51; Colak, S. M.61; Colin, U.60; Colombo, E.40; Contreras, J. L.52; Cortina, J.65; Covino, S.44; D'Amico, G.60; D'Elia, V44; Da Vela, P.62,66; Dazzi, F.44; De Angelis, A.57,58; De Lotto, B.41,42; Delfino, M.61,67; Delgado, J.61,67; Depaoli, D.59; Di Pierro, F.59; Di Venere, L.59; Espineira, E. Do Souto61; Prester, D. Dominis47,48,49,50,51; Donini, A.41,42; Dorner, D.68; Doro, M.57,58; Elsaesser, D.46; Ramazani, V. Fallah69,70; Fattorini, A.46; Ferrara, G.44; Foffano, L.57,58; Fonseca, M., V52; Font, L.71; Fruck, C.60; Fukami, S.43; Lopez, R. J. Garcia40; Garczarczyk, M.12; Gasparyan, S.64; Gaug, M.71; Giglietto, N.59; Giordano, F.59; Gliwny, P.54; Godinovic, N.47,48,49,50,51; Green, D.60; Hadasch, D.43; Hahn, A.60; Heckmann, L.60; Herrera, J.40; Hoang, J.52; Hrupec, D.47,48,49,50,51; Hutten, M.60; Inada, T.43; Inoue, S.43; Ishio, K.60; Iwamura, Y.43; Jouvin, L.61; Kajiwara, Y.43; Karjalainen, M.40; Kerszberg, D.61; Kobayashi, Y.43; Kubo, H.43; Kushida, J.43; Lamastra, A.44; Lelas, D.47,48,49,50,51; Leone, F.44; Lindfors, E.69,70; Lombardi, S.44; Longo, F.41,42,72; Lopez, M.52; Lopez-Coto, R.57,58; Lopez-Oramas, A.40; Loporchio, S.59; Fraga, B. Machado de Oliveira53; Maggio, C.71; Majumdar, P.73; Makariev, M.74; Mallamaci, M.57,58; Maneva, G.74; Manganaro, M.47,48,49,50,51; Mannheim, K.68; Maraschi, L.44; Mariotti, M.57,58; Martinez, M.61; Mazin, D.43,60; Mender, S.46; Micanovi, S.47,48,49,50,51; Miceli, D.41,42; Miener, T.52; Minev, M.74; Miranda, J. M.55,56; Mirzoyan, R.60; Molina, E.63; Moralejo, A.61; Morcuende, D.52; Moreno, V71; Moretti, E.61; Munar-Adrover, P.71; Neustroev, V69,70; Nigro, C.61; Nilsson, K.69,70; Ninci, D.61; Nishijima, K.43; Noda, K.43; Nozaki, S.43; Ohtani, Y.43; Oka, T.43; Otero-Santos, J.40; Palatiello, M.41,42; Paneque, D.60; Paoletti, R.55,56; Paredes, J. M.63; Pavletic, L.47,48,49,50,51; Penil, P.52; Perennes, C.57,58; Persic, M.41,42,75,76; Moroni, P. G. Prada62; Prandini, E.57,58; Priyadarshi, C.61; Puljak, I47,48,49,50,51; Rhode, W.46; Ribo, M.63; Rico, J.61; Righi, C.44; Rugliancich, A.62; Saha, L.52; Sahakyan, N.64; Saito, T.43; Sakurai, S.43; Satalecka, K.12; Schleicher, B.68; Schmidt, K.46; Schweizer, T.60; Sitarek, J.54; Snidaric, I47,48,49,50,51; Sobczynska, D.54; Spolon, A.57,58; Stamerra, A.44; Strom, D.60; Strzys, M.43; Suda, Y.60; Suric, T.47,48,49,50,51; Takahashi, M.43; Tavecchio, F.44; Temnikov, P.74; Terzic, T.47,48,49,50,51; Teshima, M.43,60; Torres-Alba, N.63; Tosti, L.59; Truzzi, S.55,56; van Scherpenberg, J.60; Vanzo, G.40; Acosta, M. Vazquez40; Ventura, S.55,56; Verguilov, V.74; Vigorito, C. F.59; Vitale, V.59; Vovk, I43; Will, M.60; Zaric, D.47,48,49,50,51; Jorstad, S. G.77,78; Marscher, A. P.77; Boccardi, B.79; Casadio, C.79,80; Hodgson, J.81; Kim, J-Y79; Krichbaum, T. P.79; Lahteenmaki, A.82,83,84; Tornikoski, M.82; Traianou, E.79; Weaver, Z. R.38
Organizations: 1North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.
2Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau, France.
3Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
4Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.
5RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, 123 Hovsep Emin St, Yerevan 0051, Armenia.
6Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France.
7Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France.
8Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England.
9Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
10Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia.
11Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.
12DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
13Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland.
14Linnaeus Univ, Dept Phys & Elect Engn, S-35195 Vaxjo, Sweden.
15Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany.
16Univ Paris, Lab Univers & Theories, Observ Paris, CNRS, F-92190 Meudon, France.
17Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, Lab Phys Nucl Aire & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France.
18Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France.
19Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.
20Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
21Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
22Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa.
23Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Tudes Nucl Aires Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France.
24Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
25Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, LuruperChaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany.
26Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France.
27Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland.
28Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, KarlLiebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.
29Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
30Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
31Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.
32Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Inst Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland.
33Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan.
34Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa.
35Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
36Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
37Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan.
38Yerevan Phys Inst, Yerevan 375036, Armenia.
39Univ Tokyo, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Inst Adv Study, 5-1-5 Kashiwa Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan.
40Univ La Laguna, Inst Astrofis Canarias, Dept Astrofis, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Tenerife, Spain.
41Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
42INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
43Univ Tokyo, Kyoto Univ, Japan Dept Phys, Japanese Mag Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
44Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.
45Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.
46Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
47Univ Rijeka, Croatian Consortium, Dept Phys, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.
48Univ Split, FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.
49Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
50Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.
51Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
52Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS Inst & EMFTEL Dept, Madrid 28040, Spain.
53Ctr Brasileiro Pesquisas Fis CBPF, 22290-180 URCA, Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
54Univ Lodz, Fac Phys & Appl Informat, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland.
55Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
56INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
57Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
58Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
59Ist Nazl Fis Nucl INFN, I-00044 Frascati, Italy.
60Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
61Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol BIST, Inst Fis Altes Energies IFAE, Bellaterra 08193, Spain.
62Univ Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
63Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICCUB, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
64AAlikhanyan Natl Lab, Armenian Consortium ICRANet Armenia NAS RA, Yerevan, Armenia.
65Ctr Invest Energ Medioambientales & Tecnol, Madrid 28040, Spain.
66Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
67Port Informacio Cient PIC, Bellaterra 08193, Spain.
68Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.
69Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO FINCA, Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Turku 90014, Finland.
70Univ Oulu, Astron Res Unit, Oulu 90014, Finland.
71Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis & CERES IEEC, Bellaterra 08193, Spain.
72Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
73Saha Inst Nucl Phys, HBNI, 1 AF Bidhannagar,Salt Lake,Sect 1, Kolkata 700064, India.
74Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria.
75Univ Bologna, INAF Trieste, Bologna, Italy.
76Univ Bologna, Dept Phys & Astron, Bologna, Italy.
77Boston Univ, Inst Astrophys Res, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
78St Petersburg Univ, Astron Inst, Univ Kij Pr 28, St Petersburg 198504, Russia.
79Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Auf Dem Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
80Fdn Res & Technol Hellas, IESL & Inst Astrophys, Voutes 7110, Greece.
81Korea Astron & Space Sci Inst, 776 Daedeok Daero, Daejeon 34055, South Korea.
82Aalto Univ, Metsahovi Radio Observ, Metsahovintie 114, Kylmala 02540, Finland.
83Aalto Univ, Dept Elect & Nanoengn, POB 15500, Aalto 00076, Finland.
84Tartu Observ, Observatooriumi 1, EE-61602 Toravere, Estonia.
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.5 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2021070641186
Language: English
Published: EDP Sciences, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-07-06
Description:

Abstract

The flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 1510−089 is known for its complex multiwavelength behaviour and it is one of only a few FSRQs detected in very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ rays. The VHE γ-ray observations with H.E.S.S. and MAGIC in late May and early June 2016 resulted in the detection of an unprecedented flare, which revealed, for the first time, VHE γ-ray intranight variability for this source. While a common variability timescale of 1.5 h has been found, there is a significant deviation near the end of the flare, with a timescale of ∼20 min marking the cessation of the event. The peak flux is nearly two orders of magnitude above the low-level emission. For the first time, a curvature was detected in the VHE γ-ray spectrum of PKS 1510–089, which can be fully explained by the absorption on the part of the extragalactic background light. Optical R-band observations with ATOM revealed a counterpart of the γ-ray flare, even though the detailed flux evolution differs from the VHE γ-ray light curve. Interestingly, a steep flux decrease was observed at the same time as the cessation of the VHE γ-ray flare. In the high-energy (HE, E >  100 MeV) γ-ray band, only a moderate flux increase was observed with Fermi-LAT, while the HE γ-ray spectrum significantly hardens up to a photon index of 1.6. A search for broad-line region (BLR) absorption features in the γ-ray spectrum indicates that the emission region is located outside of the BLR. Radio very-long-baseline interferometry observations reveal a fast-moving knot interacting with a standing jet feature around the time of the flare. As the standing feature is located ∼50 pc from the black hole, the emission region of the flare may have been located at a significant distance from the black hole. If this is indeed a true correlation, the VHE γ rays must have been produced far down in the jet, where turbulent plasma crosses a standing shock.

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Series: Astronomy and astrophysics
ISSN: 0004-6361
ISSN-E: 1432-0746
ISSN-L: 0004-6361
Volume: 648
Article number: A23
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202038949
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202038949
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Subjects:
Funding: The authors wish to thank the anonymous referee for a constructive report, which helped to improve the manuscript. The support of the Namibian authorities and of the University of Namibia in facilitating the construction and operation of H.E.S.S. is gratefully acknowledged, as is the support by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF), the Max Planck Society, the German Research Foundation (DFG), the Helmholtz Association, the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, the French Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS/IN2P3 and CNRS/INSU), the Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), the U.K. Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the National Science Centre, Poland grant no. 2016/22/M/ST9/00382, the South African Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation, the University of Namibia, the National Commission on Research, Science & Technology of Namibia (NCRST), the Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research and the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), the Australian Research Council (ARC), the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and by the University of Amsterdam. We appreciate the excellent work of the technical support staff in Berlin, Zeuthen, Heidelberg, Palaiseau, Paris, Saclay, Tübingen and in Namibia in the construction and operation of the equipment. This work benefited from services provided by the H.E.S.S. Virtual Organisation, supported by the national resource providers of the EGI Federation. We would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The financial support of the German BMBF and MPG; the Italian INFN and INAF; the Swiss National Fund SNF; the ERDF under the Spanish MINECO (FPA2017-87859-P, FPA2017-85668-P, FPA2017-82729-C6-2-R, FPA2017-82729-C6-6-R, FPA2017-82729-C6-5-R, AYA2015-71042-P, AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P, ESP2017-87055-C2-2-P, FPA2017-90566-REDC); the Indian Department of Atomic Energy; the Japanese ICRR, the University of Tokyo, JSPS, and MEXT; the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-153/28.08.2018 and the Academy of Finland grant nr. 320045 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia “Severo Ochoa” SEV-2016-0588 and SEV-2015-0548, the Unidad de Excelencia “María de Maeztu” MDM-2014-0369 and the “la Caixa” Foundation (fellowship LCF/BQ/PI18/11630012), by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project 13.12.1.3.02, by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3, the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382 and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq and FAPERJ. The Fermi-LAT Collaboration acknowledges generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT as well as scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States, the Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules in France, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan, and the K. A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish National Space Board in Sweden. Additional support for science analysis during the operations phase is gratefully acknowledged from the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy and the Centre National d’Études Spatiales in France. This work performed in part under DOE Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515. The VLBA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated by Associated Universities, Inc. The research at Boston University was supported by NASA Fermi Guest Investigator grant 80NSSC17K0649. This research has made use of data obtained with the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA), which consists of telescopes operated by the MPIfR, IRAM, Onsala, Metsahovi, Yebes, the Korean VLBI Network, the Greenland Telescope, the Green Bank Observatory and the VLBA. The GMVA VLBI data were correlated at the correlator of the MPIfR in Bonn, Germany.
Copyright information: © H.E.S.S. and MAGIC Collaborations 2021. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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