University of Oulu

Kabir, R.; Isha, S.N.; Chowdhury, M.T.H.; Siddika, N.; Jahan, S.S.; Saha, A.K.; Nath, S.K.; Jahan, M.S.; Sivasubramanian, M.; Mahmud, I.; Hoque Apu, E. Depression among the Non-Native International Undergraduate Students Studying Dentistry in Bangladesh. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5802.

Depression among the non-native international undergraduate students studying dentistry in Bangladesh

Saved in:
Author: Kabir, Russell1; Isha, Samia Naz2; Chowdhury, Mohammad Tawfique Hossain3;
Organizations: 1School of Allied Health, Faculty of Health, Education, Medicine and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford Essex CM1 1SQ, UK
2CAPABLE-A Cambridge-Led Programme in Bangladesh, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK
3Department of Dental Public Health, Sapporo Dental College, Dhaka 1230, Bangladesh
4Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research (CERH), Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
5Department of Dental Public Health, City Dental College, Dhaka 1229, Bangladesh
6Department of Dental Public Health, Update Dental College, Dhaka 1711, Bangladesh
7Programme Manager (MSc Nursing and PH), The University of Sunderland in London, London E14 9SG, UK
8Department of Public Health, College of Public Health and Health Informatics, Qassim University, Al Bukairiyah 52741, Saudi Arabia
9Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Quantitative Health Science (IQ), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.3 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-07-07


Background: Bangladesh has been attracting international students with interests in various subjects recently. Every year students from different parts of the world come to study undergraduate and postgraduate courses, mostly at private universities in Bangladesh. This study evaluates the depression status among international students who are studying dentistry in Bangladesh.

Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among International undergraduate dental students who enrolled in the Bachelor of Dental Surgery program in nine public and private dental colleges in Bangladesh. Participants were selected using a convenience sampling method. A total of 206 students completed the survey where 78.5% of them were female students and 21.5% students were male, and a CES-D 10-item Likert scale questionnaire was used for data collection. The Cronbach alpha for the 10-item CES-D scale for this population is 0.812.

Results: The majority of the students (79.5%) are below 24 years of age with a mean age of 23.22 years and standard deviation of 2.3, and are students who cannot communicate well in Bengali (Bangla), about 60% of them have experienced depression. About 77.3% (p < 0.00) of the international students having financial difficulties exhibited depression. The international students who went through financial problems were two times more likely to suffer from depression (OR = 2.38; p-value < 0.01).

Conclusion: This study tried to highlight the struggles faced by international students in Bangladesh studying dentistry. It is evident from the findings that several factors influence students’ mental well-being during demanding dental education years.

see all

Series: International journal of environmental research and public health
ISSN: 1661-7827
ISSN-E: 1660-4601
ISSN-L: 1661-7827
Volume: 18
Issue: 11
Article number: 5802
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18115802
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (