University of Oulu

Merisaari H, Laakso H, Liljenbäck H, Virtanen H, Aronen HJ, Minn H, Poutanen M, Roivainen A, Liimatainen T and Jambor I (2021) Statistical Evaluation of Different Mathematical Models for Diffusion Weighted Imaging of Prostate Cancer Xenografts in Mice. Front. Oncol. 11:583921. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2021.583921

Statistical evaluation of different mathematical models for diffusion weighted imaging of prostate cancer xenografts in mice

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Author: Merisaari, Harri1,2; Laakso, Hanne3; Liljenbäck, Heidi4;
Organizations: 1Department of Radiology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
2Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
3Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, Kuopio, Finland
4Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
5Turku Center for Disease Modeling, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
6Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
7Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
8Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
9Department of Clinical Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
10Department of Radiology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Frontiers Media, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-07-13


Purpose: To evaluate fitting quality and repeatability of four mathematical models for diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) during tumor progression in mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer.

Methods: Human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) were implanted subcutaneously in right hind limbs of 11 immunodeficient mice. Tumor growth was followed by weekly DWI examinations using a 7T MR scanner. Additional DWI examination was performed after repositioning following the fourth DWI examination to evaluate short term repeatability. DWI was performed using 15 and 12 b-values in the ranges of 0-500 and 0-2000 s/mm², respectively. Corrected Akaike information criteria and F-ratio were used to evaluate fitting quality of each model (mono-exponential, stretched exponential, kurtosis, and bi-exponential).

Results: Significant changes were observed in DWI data during the tumor growth, indicated by ADCm, ADCs, and ADCk. Similar results were obtained using low as well as high b-values. No marked changes in model preference were present between the weeks 1−4. The parameters of the mono-exponential, stretched exponential, and kurtosis models had smaller confidence interval and coefficient of repeatability values than the parameters of the bi-exponential model.

Conclusion: Stretched exponential and kurtosis models showed better fit to DWI data than the mono-exponential model and presented with good repeatability.

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Series: Frontiers in oncology
ISSN: 2234-943X
ISSN-E: 2234-943X
ISSN-L: 2234-943X
Volume: 11
Article number: 583921
DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2021.583921
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3126 Surgery, anesthesiology, intensive care, radiology
3122 Cancers
Funding: This study was financially supported by grants Sigrid Jusélius Foundation (HaM, HA, and IJ), Finnish Cultural Foundation (HM and IJ), Finnish Cancer Society (IJ), Orion Research Foundation (HaM), Instrumentarium Research Foundation (IJ), Academy of Finland (AR and TL), Turku University Hospital (HA and IJ), TYKS-SAPA research fund (HA and IJ), Turku University Foundation (HaM and IJ), and University of Eastern Finland strategic funding (TL and HL).
Copyright information: © 2021 Merisaari, Laakso, Liljenbäck, Virtanen, Aronen, Minn, Poutanen, Roivainen, Liimatainen and Jambor. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.