University of Oulu

Mustonen, A.-M.; Käkelä, R.; Joukainen, A.; Lehenkari, P.; Jaroma, A.; Kääriäinen, T.; Kröger, H.; Paakkonen, T.; Sihvo, S.P.; Nieminen, P. Synovial Fluid Fatty Acid Profiles Are Differently Altered by Inflammatory Joint Pathologies in the Shoulder and Knee Joints. Biology 2021, 10, 401.

Synovial fluid fatty acid profiles are differently altered by inflammatory joint pathologies in the shoulder and knee joints

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Author: Mustonen, Anne-Mari1,2; Käkelä, Reijo3,4; Joukainen, Antti5;
Organizations: 1Institute of Biomedicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
2Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland
3Molecular and Integrative Biosciences Research Programme, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
4Helsinki University Lipidomics Unit (HiLIPID), Helsinki Institute for Life Science (HiLIFE) and Biocenter Finland, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
5Pohjola Hospital, Leväsentie 1, FI-70700 Kuopio, Finland
6Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
7Department of Surgery and Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, P.O. Box 21, FI-90029 OYS, Finland
8Department of Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Hand Surgery, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 100, FI-70290 Kuopio, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-07-13


Anomalies of fatty acid (FA) metabolism characterize osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the knee joint. No previous study has investigated the synovial fluid (SF) FA manifestations in these aging-related inflammatory diseases in the shoulder. The present experiment compared the FA alterations between the shoulder and knee joints in patients with end-stage OA or end-stage RA. SF samples were collected during glenohumeral or knee joint surgery from trauma controls and from OA and RA patients (n = 42). The FA composition of SF total lipids was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection and compared across cohorts. The FA signatures of trauma controls were mostly uniform in both anatomical locations. RA shoulders were characterized by elevated percentages of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 and with reduced proportions of 18:1n-9. The FA profiles of OA and RA knees were relatively uniform and displayed lower proportions of 18:2n-6, 22:6n-3 and total n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs). The results indicate location- and disease-dependent differences in the SF FA composition. These alterations in FA profiles and their potential implications for the production of PUFA-derived lipid mediators may affect joint lubrication, synovial inflammation and pannus formation as well as cartilage and bone degradation and contribute to the pathogeneses of inflammatory joint diseases.

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Series: Biology
ISSN: 2079-7737
ISSN-E: 2079-7737
ISSN-L: 2079-7737
Volume: 10
Issue: 5
Article number: 401
DOI: 10.3390/biology10050401
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Funding: The work was financially supported by the Academy of Finland (#322429 to PN). The funding source had no involvement in the study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data, in the writing of the report or in the decision to submit the article for publication.
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (