University of Oulu

V A Acciari, S Ansoldi, L A Antonelli, K Asano, A Babić, B Banerjee, A Baquero, U Barres de Almeida, J A Barrio, J Becerra González, W Bednarek, L Bellizzi, E Bernardini, M Bernardos, A Berti, J Besenrieder, W Bhattacharyya, C Bigongiari, O Blanch, G Bonnoli, Ž Bošnjak, G Busetto, R Carosi, G Ceribella, M Cerruti, Y Chai, A Chilingarian, S Cikota, S M Colak, E Colombo, J L Contreras, J Cortina, S Covino, G D’Amico, V D’Elia, P Da Vela, F Dazzi, A De Angelis, B De Lotto, M Delfino, J Delgado, C Delgado Mendez, D Depaoli, T Di Girolamo, F Di Pierro, L Di Venere, E Do Souto Espiñeira, D Dominis Prester, A Donini, M Doro, V Fallah Ramazani, A Fattorini, G Ferrara, L Foffano, M V Fonseca, L Font, C Fruck, S Fukami, R J García López, M Garczarczyk, S Gasparyan, M Gaug, N Giglietto, F Giordano, P Gliwny, N Godinović, J G Green, D Green, D Hadasch, A Hahn, L Heckmann, J Herrera, J Hoang, D Hrupec, M Hütten, T Inada, S Inoue, K Ishio, Y Iwamura, J Jormanainen, L Jouvin, Y Kajiwara, M Karjalainen, D Kerszberg, Y Kobayashi, H Kubo, J Kushida, A Lamastra, D Lelas, F Leone, E Lindfors, S Lombardi, F Longo, M López, R López-Coto, A López-Oramas, S Loporchio, B Machado de Oliveira Fraga, C Maggio, P Majumdar, M Makariev, M Mallamaci, G Maneva, M Manganaro, L Maraschi, M Mariotti, M Martínez, D Mazin, S Mender, S Mićanović, D Miceli, T Miener, M Minev, J M Miranda, R Mirzoyan, E Molina, A Moralejo, D Morcuende, V Moreno, E Moretti, P Munar-Adrover, V Neustroev, C Nigro, K Nilsson, D Ninci, K Nishijima, K Noda, S Nozaki, Y Ohtani, T Oka, J Otero-Santos, M Palatiello, D Paneque, R Paoletti, J M Paredes, L Pavletić, P Peñil, C Perennes, M Persic, P G Prada Moroni, E Prandini, C Priyadarshi, I Puljak, W Rhode, M Ribó, J Rico, C Righi, A Rugliancich, L Saha, N Sahakyan, T Saito, S Sakurai, K Satalecka, B Schleicher, K Schmidt, T Schweizer, J Sitarek, I Šnidarić, D Sobczynska, A Spolon, A Stamerra, D Strom, M Strzys, Y Suda, T Surić, M Takahashi, F Tavecchio, P Temnikov, T Terzić, M Teshima, N Torres-Albà, L Tosti, S Truzzi, J van Scherpenberg, G Vanzo, M Vazquez Acosta, S Ventura, V Verguilov, C F Vigorito, V Vitale, I Vovk, M Will, D Zarić, A Arbet-Engels, D Baack, M Balbo, M Beck, N Biederbeck, A Biland, T Bretz, K Bruegge, J Buss, D Dorner, D Elsaesser, D Hildebrand, R Iotov, M Klinger, K Mannheim, D Neise, A Neronov, M Noethe, A Paravac, W Rhode, B Schleicher, V Sliusar, F Theissen, R Walter, J Valverde, D Horan, M Giroletti, M Perri, F Verrecchia, C Leto, A C Sadun, J W Moody, M Joner, A P Marscher, S G Jorstad, A Lähteenmäki, M Tornikoski, V Ramakrishnan, E Järvelä, R J C Vera, S Righini, A Y Lien, Multiwavelength variability and correlation studies of Mrk 421 during historically low X-ray and γ-ray activity in 2015–2016, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 504, Issue 1, June 2021, Pages 1427–1451, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa3727

Multiwavelength variability and correlation studies of Mrk 421 during historically low X-ray and gamma-ray activity in 2015–2016

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Author: Acciari, V. A.1,2; Ansoldi, S.3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10; Antonelli, L. A.11;
Asano, K.5,6,7,8,9,10; Babic, A.12,13,14,15,16; Banerjee, B.17; Baquero, A.18,19; de Almeida, U. Barres20; Barrio, J. A.18,19; Becerra Gonzalez, J.1,2; Bednarek, W.21; Bellizzi, L.22,23; Bernardini, E.24,25,26; Bernardos, M.27; Berti, A.28; Besenrieder, J.29; Bhattacharyya, W.24; Bigongiari, C.11; Blanch, O.30; Bonnoli, G.22,23; Bosnjak, Z.12,13,14,15,16; Busetto, G.25,26; Carosi, R.25,31,32; Ceribella, G.29; Cerruti, M.33; Chai, Y.29; Chilingarian, A.34; Cikota, S.12,13,14,15,16; Colak, S. M.30; Colombo, E.1,2; Contreras, J. L.18,19; Cortina, J.27; Covino, S.11; D'Amico, G.29; D'Elia, V11; Da Vela, P.25,31,32; Dazzi, F.11; De Angelis, A.25,26; De Lotto, B.3,4; Delfino, M.30; Delgado, J.30; Delgado Mendez, C.27; Depaoli, D.28; Di Girolamo, T.28; Di Pierro, F.28; Di Venere, L.28; Espi Neira, E. Do Souto30; Prester, D. Dominis12,13,14,15,16; Donini, A.3,4; Doro, M.25,26; Ramazani, V. Fallah35,36; Fattorini, A.37; Ferrara, G.11; Foffano, L.25,26; Fonseca, M., V18,19; Font, L.38,39; Fruck, C.29; Fukami, S.5,6,7,8,9,10; Garcia Lopez, R. J.1,2; Garczarczyk, M.24; Gasparyan, S.34; Gaug, M.38,39; Giglietto, N.28; Giordano, F.28; Gliwny, P.21; Green, J. G.11; Green, D.29; Hadasch, D.5,6,7,8,9,10; Hahn, A.29; Heckmann, L.29; Herrera, J.1,2; Hoang, J.18,19; Hrupec, D.12,13,14,15,16; Huetten, M.29; Inada, T.5,6,7,8,9,10; Inoue, S.5,6,7,8,9,10; Ishio, K.29; Iwamura, Y.5,6,7,8,9,10; Jormanainen, J.35,36; Jouvin, L.30; Kajiwara, Y.5,6,7,8,9,10; Karjalainen, M.1,2; Kerszberg, D.30; Kobayashi, Y.5,6,7,8,9,10; Kubo, H.5,6,7,8,9,10; Kushida, J.5,6,7,8,9,10; Lamastra, A.11; Lelas, D.12,13,14,15,16; Leone, F.11; Lindfors, E.35,36; Lombardi, S.11; Longo, F.3,4,40; Lopez, M.18,19; Lopez-Coto, R.25,26; Lopez-Oramas, A.1,2; Loporchio, S.28; de Oliveira Fraga, B. Machado20; Maggio, C.38,39; Majumdar, P.17; Makariev, M.41; Mallamaci, M.25,26; Maneva, G.41; Manganaro, M.12,13,14,15,16; Maraschi, L.11; Mariotti, M.25,26; Martinez, M.30; Mazin, D.5,6,7,8,9,10,29; Mender, S.37; Micanovic, S.12,13,14,15,16; Miceli, D.3,4; Miener, T.18,19; Minev, M.41; Miranda, J. M.22,23; Mirzoyan, R.29; Molina, E.33; Moralejo, A.30; Morcuende, D.18,19; Moreno, V38,39; Moretti, E.30; Munar-Adrover, P.38,39; Neustroev, V35,36; Nigro, C.30; Nilsson, K.35,36; Ninci, D.30; Nishijima, K.5,6,7,8,9,10; Noda, K.5,6,7,8,9,10; Nozaki, S.5,6,7,8,9,10; Ohtani, Y.5,6,7,8,9,10; Oka, T.5,6,7,8,9,10; Otero-Santos, J.1,2; Palatiello, M.3,4; Paneque, D.29; Paoletti, R.22,23; Paredes, J. M.33; Pavletic, L.12,13,14,15,16; Penil, P.18,19; Perennes, C.25,26; Persic, M.3,4; Moroni, P. G. Prada25,31,32; Prandini, E.25,26; Priyadarshi, C.30; Puljak, I12,13,14,15,16; Rhode, W.37,42; Ribo, M.33; Rico, J.30; Righi, C.11; Rugliancich, A.25,31,32; Saha, L.18,19; Sahakyan, N.34; Saito, T.5,6,7,8,9,10; Sakurai, S.5,6,7,8,9,10; Satalecka, K.24; Schleicher, B.43; Schmidt, K.37; Schweizer, T.29; Sitarek, J.21; Snidaric, I12,13,14,15,16; Sobczynska, D.21; Spolon, A.25,26; Stamerra, A.11; Strom, D.29; Strzys, M.5,6,7,8,9,10; Suda, Y.29; Suric, T.12,13,14,15,16; Takahashi, M.5,6,7,8,9,10; Tavecchio, F.11; Temnikov, P.41; Terzic, T.12,13,14,15,16; Teshima, M.5,6,7,8,9,10,29; Torres-Alba, N.33; Tosti, L.28; Truzzi, S.22,23; van Scherpenberg, J.29; Vanzo, G.1,2; Vazquez Acosta, M.1,2; Ventura, S.22,23; Verguilov, V.41; Vigorito, C. F.28; Vitale, V.28; Vovk, I5,6,7,8,9,10; Will, M.29; Zaric, D.12,13,14,15,16; Arbet-Engels, A.40; Baack, D.42; Balbo, M.44; Beck, M.40; Biederbeck, N.42; Biland, A.40; Bretz, T.40; Bruegge, K.42; Buss, J.42; Dorner, D.45; Elsaesser, D.42; Hildebrand, D.40; Iotov, R.45; Klinger, M.40; Mannheim, K.45; Neise, D.40; Neronov, A.44; Noethe, M.42; Paravac, A.45; Rhode, W.37,42; Sliusar, V44; Theissen, F.40; Walter, R.44; Valverde, J.46; Horan, D.46; Giroletti, M.47; Perri, M.48,49; Verrecchia, F.48,49; Leto, C.48,50; Sadun, A. C.51; Moody, J. W.52; Joner, M.52; Marscher, A. P.53; Jorstad, S. G.53,54; Lahteenmaki, A.55,56; Tornikoski, M.55; Ramakrishnan, V55,57; Jarvela, E.55,58; Vera, R. J. C.55,56; Righini, S.59; Lien, A. Y.60,61
Organizations: 1Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 Tenerife, Spain.
2Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain.
3Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
4INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
5Univ Tokyo, Japanese Mag Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
6Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
7Tokai Univ, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.
8Hiroshima Univ, Grad Sch Adv Sci & Engn, Phys Program, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan.
9Konan Univ, Konan, Hyogo 6588501, Japan.
10RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan.
11Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.
12Univ Rijeka, Dept Phys, Croatian Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.
13Univ Split FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.
14Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
15Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.
16Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
17HBNI, Saha Inst Nucl Phys, 1-AF Bidhannagar,Sect 1, Kolkata 700064, India.
18Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS Inst, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
19Univ Complutense Madrid, EMFTEL Dept, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
20URCA, Ctr Brasileiro Pesquisas Fis CBPF, BR-22290180 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
21Univ Lodz, Fac Phys & Appl Informat, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland.
22Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
23INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
24Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
25Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
26Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
27Ctr Invest Energet Medioambientales & Tecnol CIEM, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
28Ist Nazl Fis Nucl INFN, I-00044 Rome, Italy.
29Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
30Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol BIST, Inst Fis Altes Energies IFAE, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain.
31Univ Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
32INFN Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
33Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICCUB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
34NAS RA, A Alikhanyan Natl Lab, Armenian Consortium ICRANet Armenia, Yerevan 0036, Armenia.
35Univ Turku, Finnish MAGIC Consortium Finnish Ctr Astron, ESO FINCA, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.
36Univ Oulu, Astron Res Unit, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.
37Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
38Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
39Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
40Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Particle Phys & Astrophys, Otto Stern Weg 5, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.
41Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria.
42TU Dortmund, Expt Phys 5, Otto Hahn Str 4a, D-44227 Dortmund, Germany.
43Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.
44Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecog 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
45Univ Wurzburg, Inst Theoret Phys & Astrophys, Emil Fischer Str 31, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.
46Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France.
47INAF Ist Radioastron, Bologna, Italy.
48Space Sci Data Ctr SSDC ASI, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
49INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy.
50ASI, Italian Space Agcy, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
51Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Denver, CO 80217 USA.
52Brigham Young Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Provo, UT 84602 USA.
53Boston Univ, Inst Astrophys Res, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
54St Petersburg State Univ, Astron Inst, Univ Skij Pr 28, St Petersburg 198504, Russia.
55Aalto Univ, Metsahovi Radio Observ, Metshovintie 114, FIN-02540 Kylmala, Finland.
56Aalto Univ, Dept Elect & Nanoengn, POB 15500, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland.
57Univ Concepcion, Astron Dept, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile.
58European Space Astron Ctr, European Space Agcy, C Bajo El Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
59INAF Ist Radioastron, Stn Med, Via Fiorentina 3513, I-40059 Villafontana, BO, Italy.
60NASA, Astrophys Sci Div, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
61Univ Maryland Baltimore Cty, Dept Phys, Baltimore, MD 21250 USA.
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 6.7 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2021071341434
Language: English
Published: Oxford University Press, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-07-14
Description:

Abstract

We report a characterization of the multiband flux variability and correlations of the nearby (z = 0.031) blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) using data from Metsähovi, Swift, Fermi-LAT, MAGIC, FACT, and other collaborations and instruments from 2014 November till 2016 June. Mrk 421 did not show any prominent flaring activity, but exhibited periods of historically low activity above 1 TeV (F> 1 TeV < 1.7 × 10⁻¹² ph cm⁻² s⁻¹) and in the 2–10 keV (X-ray) band (F2–10 keV < 3.6 × 10⁻¹¹ erg cm⁻² s⁻¹), during which the Swift-BAT data suggest an additional spectral component beyond the regular synchrotron emission. The highest flux variability occurs in X-rays and very high-energy (E > 0.1 TeV) gamma-rays, which, despite the low activity, show a significant positive correlation with no time lag. The HRkeV and HRTeV show the harder-when-brighter trend observed in many blazars, but the trend flattens at the highest fluxes, which suggests a change in the processes dominating the blazar variability. Enlarging our data set with data from years 2007 to 2014, we measured a positive correlation between the optical and the GeV emission over a range of about 60 d centred at time lag zero, and a positive correlation between the optical/GeV and the radio emission over a range of about 60 d centred at a time lag of \(43_{-6}^{+9}\) d. This observation is consistent with the radio-bright zone being located about 0.2 parsec downstream from the optical/GeV emission regions of the jet. The flux distributions are better described with a lognormal function in most of the energy bands probed, indicating that the variability in Mrk 421 is likely produced by a multiplicative process.

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Series: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
ISSN: 0035-8711
ISSN-E: 1365-8711
ISSN-L: 0035-8711
Volume: 504
Issue: 1
Pages: 1427 - 1451
DOI: 10.1093/mnras/staa3727
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa3727
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Subjects:
Funding: The MAGIC collaboration would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The financial support of the German BMBF and MPG; the Italian INFN and INAF; the Swiss National Fund SNF; the ERDF under the Spanish MINECO (FPA2017-87859-P, FPA2017-85668-P, FPA2017-82729-C6-2-R, FPA2017-82729-C6-6-R, FPA2017-82729-C6-5-R, AYA2015-71042-P, AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P, ESP2017-87055-C2-2-P, FPA2017-90566-REDC); the Indian Department of Atomic Energy; the Japanese ICRR, the University of Tokyo, JSPS, and MEXT; the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-268/16.12.2019 and the Academy of Finland grant nr. 320045 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia ‘Severo Ochoa’ SEV-2016-0588 and SEV-2015-0548, the Unidad de Excelencia ‘María de Maeztu’ MDM-2014-0369 and the ‘la Caixa’ Foundation (fellowship LCF/BQ/PI18/11630012), by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project 13.12.1.3.02, by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3, the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382 and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq, and FAPERJ. The Fermi LAT Collaboration acknowledges generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT as well as scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States, the Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique / Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules in France, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan, and the K. A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish National Space Board in Sweden. Additional support for science analysis during the operations phase is gratefully acknowledged from the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy and the Centre National d’Études Spatiales in France. This work performed in part under DOE Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515. The authors are very grateful to Matthew Kerr for his guidance and various discussions about the unbinnned log-likelihood fits using G and LN PDFs. The authors acknowledge the use of public data from the Swift data archive, and are particularly thankful to the Swift operations team for maximizing the simultaneity of the VHE and X-ray observations. This research has made use of the XRT Data Analysis Software (XRTDAS) developed under the responsibility of the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC), Italy. Some of the results reported are based on data taken and assembled by the WEBT collaboration and stored in the WEBT archive at the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino - INAF (http://www.oato.inaf.it/blazars/webt/). The authors are particularly grateful to M.I. Carnerero for discussions about the WEBT data. The research at Boston University was supported in part by NASA Fermi Guest Investigator grant 80NSSC17K0649. The authors thank H. Zhang for enlightening correspondence. This publication makes use of data obtained at the Metsähovi Radio Observatory, operated by Aalto University in Finland. The Medicina radio telescope is funded by the Department of University and Research (MIUR) and is operated as National Facility by the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). The important contributions from ETH Zurich grants ETH-10.08-2 and ETH-27.12-1 as well as the funding by the Swiss SNF and the German BMBF (Verbundforschung Astro- und Astroteilchenphysik) and HAP (Helmholtz Alliance for Astroparticle Physics) are gratefully acknowledged. Part of this work is supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the Collaborative Research Center SFB 876 ‘Providing Information by Resource-Constrained Analysis’, project C3. We are thankful for the very valuable contributions from E. Lorenz, D. Renker and G. Viertel during the early phase of the project. We thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for allowing us to operate the telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma, the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik for providing us with the mount of the former HEGRA CT3 telescope, and the MAGIC collaboration for their support. This research has made use of data from the OVRO 40-m monitoring program (Richards, J. L. et al. 2011, ApJS, 194, 29) which is supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AW31G, NNX11A043G, and NNX14AQ89G and NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911.
Copyright information: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.