University of Oulu

M. Kokkonen, H. Juttula, A. Mäkynen, S. Myllymäki and H. Jantunen, "The Effect of Drop Shape, Sensing Volume and Raindrop Size Statistics to the Scattered Field on 300 GHz," in IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 101381-101389, 2021, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3097545

The effect of drop shape, sensing volume and raindrop size statistics to the scattered field on 300 GHz

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Author: Kokkonen, Mikko1; Juttula, Harri2; Mäkynen, Anssi2;
Organizations: 1Microelectronics Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Unit, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-08-11


Scattering and attenuation properties of rain using various drop models are calculated using Mie theory, the T-matrix method and numerical technique respectively. Ellipsoidal and oblate drops use the axis ratio of raindrops reported in literature. Scattering are presented both for small volumes containing a single drop and for large volumes with multiple drops in which the statistics of drop size distribution need to be taken into account. The angular dependence of scattering, absorption and scattering cross sections and polarization ratios are investigated. For single scattering the angular dependence and cross sections of nonspherical drops differed from those of a spherical drop. Differences between ellipsoid and oblate drops were minimal. Drop shape affected the polarization mostly at 40–140 degree detection angles. The averaged linear attenuation and rain induced cross channel signal were studied. Attenuation was close to the ITU-R.838 model and in the same order of magnitude as the attenuation due to atmospheric moisture. The cross channel signal was calculated as a function of rain rate and transmitter/receiver angle. Vertical polarization was observed to produce a higher cross channel signal than horizontal polarization. It was concluded that drop shape is not an important factor at 300 GHz due to small drops dominating the scattering signal. Overall, the results showed that in single scattering, the ellipsoid is a good approximation for raindrops and that for large volumes, a spherical drop approximation and a Mie solution may be sufficient at frequencies of 300 GHz and higher.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 9
Pages: 101381 - 101389
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3097545
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the Academy of Finland 6G Flagship under Grant 318927, in part by the European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) Program Interreg V. A. Nord through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under Grant NYPS20202472, and in part by the Regional Council of Lapland under Grant 126/
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors 2021. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see