University of Oulu

B. B. Q. Elias, P. J. Soh, A. A. Al-Hadi, P. Akkaraekthalin and G. A. E. Vandenbosch, "A Review of Antenna Analysis Using Characteristic Modes," in IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 98833-98862, 2021, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3095422

A review of antenna analysis using characteristic modes

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Author: Qas Elias, Bashar Bahaa1,2; Soh, Ping Jack1,3; Al-Hadi, Azremi Abdullah1;
Organizations: 1Advanced Communication Engineering (ACE) CoE, Faculty of Electronic Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Pauh Putra Campus, Arau 02600, Perlis, Malaysia
2Department of Communication Engineering Techniques, Imam Ja'afar Al-Sadiq University, Baghdad 10052, Iraq
3Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
4ESAT-WAVECORE Research Division, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
5Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok (KMUTNB), Bangkok 10800, Thailand
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.3 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-08-18


Characteristic modes can be used to solve many radiation and scattering problems involving fully conducting structures. The basic concept is to use eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the characteristic mode equations of a certain topology, and to use these eigenmode currents to control the radiating structure’s behavior. This is accomplished by understanding the overall reflection and radiation characteristics across the operating frequency band. More specifically, characteristic modes are effective for example in determining the best location for the excitation of a radiating structure. In this paper, a comprehensive overview is provided to the different studies and their results obtained for different antennas that are based on the characteristic mode analysis method. A future perspective is given regarding the potential of this method in antenna analysis and design.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 9
Pages: 98833 - 98862
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3095422
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia through the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme under Grant FRGS/1/2020/TK0/UNIMAP/02/19, in part by the King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok under Grant KMUTNB-FF-65-21, and in part by the Academy of Finland 6Genesis Flagship under Grant 318927.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors 2021. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see