University of Oulu

Hammam, A.; Cao, Y.; El-Geassy, A.-H.A.; El-Sadek, M.H.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; Omran, M.; Yu, Y. Non-Isothermal Reduction Kinetics of Iron Ore Fines with Carbon-Bearing Materials. Metals 2021, 11, 1137.

Non-isothermal reduction kinetics of iron ore fines with carbon-bearing materials

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Author: Hammam, Abourehab1,2; Cao, Yi1; El-Geassy, Abdel-Hady A.2;
Organizations: 1State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferro Metallurgy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
2Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Cairo 11421, Egypt
3Process Metallurgy Research Group, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 8.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-08-18


This study investigates the non-isothermal reduction of iron ore fines with two different carbon-bearing materials using the thermogravimetric technique. The iron ore fines/carbon composites were heated from room temperature up to 1100 °C with different heating rates (5, 10, 15, and 20 °C/min) under an argon atmosphere. The effect of heating rates and carbon sources on the reduction rate was intensively investigated. Reflected light and scanning electron microscopes were used to examine the morphological structure of the reduced composite. The results showed that the heating rates affected the reduction extent and the reduction rate. Under the same heating rate, the rates of reduction were relatively higher by using charcoal than coal. The reduction behavior of iron ore-coal was proceeded step wisely as follows: Fe₂O₃ → Fe₃O₄ → FeO → Fe. The reduction of iron ore/charcoal was proceeded from Fe₂O₃ to FeO and finally from FeO to metallic iron. The reduction kinetics was deduced by applying two different methods (model-free and model-fitting). The calculated activation energies of Fe₂O₃/charcoal and of Fe₂O₃/coal are 40.50–190.12 kJ/mol and 55.02–220.12 kJ/mol, respectively. These indicated that the reduction is controlled by gas diffusion at the initial stages and by nucleation reaction at the final stages.

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Series: Metals
ISSN: 2075-4701
ISSN-E: 2075-4701
ISSN-L: 2075-4701
Volume: 11
Issue: 7
Article number: 1137
DOI: 10.3390/met11071137
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: This research was funded by the Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at the Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning (No.TP2015039), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51974182), National 111 project, Grant/Award No. 17002 and CSC support for a Ph.D. from the Belt and Road Countries.
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (