University of Oulu

Bruno, A., Martucci, M., Cafagna, F. S., Sparvoli, R., Adriani, O., Barbarino, G. C., Bazilevskaya, G. A., Bellotti, R., Boezio, M., Bogomolov, E. A., Bongi, M., Bonvicini, V., Campana, D., Carlson, P., Casolino, M., Castellini, G., De Santis, C., Galper, A. M., Koldashov, S. V., … Zharaspayev, T. R. (2021). Solar-cycle Variations of South Atlantic Anomaly Proton Intensities Measured with the PAMELA Mission. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 917(2), L21.

Solar-cycle variations of South Atlantic anomaly proton intensities measured with the PAMELA mission

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Author: Bruno, A.1,2; Martucci, M.3,4; Cafagna, F. S.5;
Organizations: 1NASA, Heliophys Div, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
2Catholic Univ Amer, Dept Phys, Washington, DC 20064 USA.
3Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dept Phys, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
4Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Rome Tor Vergata, I-100133 Rome, Italy.
5Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
6Univ Florence, Dept Phys, I-50019 Florence, Italy.
7Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Florence, I-50019 Florence, Italy.
8Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Phys, I-80126 Naples, Italy.
9Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Naples, I-80126 Naples, Italy.
10Lebedev Phys Inst, RU-119991 Moscow, Russia.
11Univ Bari, Dept Phys, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
12Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, I-34149 Trieste, Italy.
13IFPU, I-34014 Trieste, Italy.
14Ioffe Phys Tech Inst, RU-194021 St Petersburg, Russia.
15AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, KTH, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
16AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
17RIKEN, EUSO Team Global Res Cluster, Wako, Saitama, Japan.
18IFAC, I-50019 Florence, Italy.
19MEPhI Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, RU-115409 Moscow, Russia.
20Univ Oulu, Oulu 90570, Finland.
21Univ Trieste, Dept Phys, I-34100 Trieste, Italy.
22Univ Siegen, Dept Phys, D-57068 Siegen, Germany.
23Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati, Italy.
24Ist Nazl Astrofis, Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
25Univ Udine, Dept Math Comp Sci & Phys, Via Sci 206, Udine, Italy.
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: IOP Publishing, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-08-18


We present a study of the solar-cycle variations of >80 MeV proton flux intensities in the lower edge of the inner radiation belt, based on the measurements of the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) mission. The analyzed data sample covers an similar to 8 yr interval from 2006 July to 2014 September, thus spanning from the decaying phase of the 23rd solar cycle to the maximum of the 24th cycle. We explored the intensity temporal variations as a function of drift shell and proton energy, also providing an explicit investigation of the solar modulation effects at different equatorial pitch angles. PAMELA observations offer new important constraints for the modeling of low-altitude particle radiation environment at the highest trapping energies.

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Series: Astrophysical journal letters
ISSN: 2041-8205
ISSN-E: 2041-8213
ISSN-L: 2041-8205
Volume: 917
Issue: 2
Article number: L21
DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac1a74
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: They acknowledge support from The Italian Space Agency (ASI) under the program "Programma PAMELA-attivita scientifica di analisi dati in fase E", Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft-und Raumfahrt (DLR), The Swedish National Space Board, The Swedish Research Council, and The Russian Space Agency (Roscosmos). A.B. acknowledges NASA support through NESC TI-18-01404. M.M., F.S.C., and R.S. acknowledge ESA/ESTEC support through contract 4000129294/19/NL/AS. V.V.M. and A.G.M. acknowledge support from the Russian Science Foundation through project 19-72-10161.
Dataset Reference: The neutron monitor data were provided by the Neutron Monitor DataBase from the OMNI database (
Copyright information: © 2021. The American Astronomical Society. The final authenticated version is available online at