University of Oulu

P. Porambage, G. Gür, D. P. M. Osorio, M. Liyanage, A. Gurtov and M. Ylianttila, "The Roadmap to 6G Security and Privacy," in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society, vol. 2, pp. 1094-1122, 2021, doi: 10.1109/OJCOMS.2021.3078081

The roadmap to 6G security and privacy

Saved in:
Author: Porambage, Pawani1; Güry, Gürkan2; Osorio, Diana Pamela Moya1;
Organizations: 1Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
2Institute of Applied Information Technology (InIT), Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW), 8400 Winterthur, Switzerland
3School of Computer Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, D04 V1W8 Ireland
4Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.5 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-09-01


Although the fifth generation (5G) wireless networks are yet to be fully investigated, the visionaries of the 6th generation (6G) echo systems have already come into the discussion. Therefore, in order to consolidate and solidify the security and privacy in 6G networks, we survey how security may impact the envisioned 6G wireless systems, possible challenges with different 6G technologies, and the potential solutions. We provide our vision on 6G security and security key performance indicators (KPIs) with the tentative threat landscape based on the foreseen 6G network architecture. Moreover, we discuss the security and privacy challenges that may encounter with the available 6G requirements and potential 6G applications. We also give the reader some insights into the standardization efforts and research-level projects relevant to 6G security. In particular, we discuss the security considerations with 6G enabling technologies such as distributed ledger technology (DLT), physical layer security, distributed AI/ML, visible light communication (VLC), THz, and quantum computing. All in all, this work intends to provide enlightening guidance for the subsequent research of 6G security and privacy at this initial phase of vision towards reality.

see all

Series: IEEE open journal of the Communications Society
ISSN: 2644-125X
ISSN-E: 2644-125X
ISSN-L: 2644-125X
Volume: 2
Pages: 1094 - 1122
DOI: 10.1109/OJCOMS.2021.3078081
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
113 Computer and information sciences
Funding: This work was supported in part by the 6Genesis Flagship under Grant 318927; in part by 5GEAR Projects; and in part by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant 871808 (5G PPP Project INSPIRE-5Gplus). The work of Andrei Gurtov was supported in part by CENIIT Project 17.01 and in part by the Excellence Center at Linköping-Lund in IT (ELLIIT). This work is an extension of the short paper (6 pages) which is accepted to 2021 Joint EuCNC and 6G Summit. The conference paper is titled as “6G Security Challenges and Potential Solutions”
EU Grant Number: (871808) INSPIRE-5Gplus - INtelligent Security and PervasIve tRust for 5G and Beyond
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors 2021. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see