University of Oulu

O. L. A. López, H. Alves, R. D. Souza, S. Montejo-Sánchez, E. M. G. Fernández and M. Latva-Aho, "Massive Wireless Energy Transfer: Enabling Sustainable IoT Toward 6G Era," in IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 8816-8835, 1 June1, 2021, doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2021.3050612

Massive wireless energy transfer : enabling sustainable IoT toward 6G era

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Author: López, Onel L. A.1; Alves, Hirley1; Souza, Richard Demo2;
Organizations: 1Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Department of EEL, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900, Brazil
3Programa Institucional de Fomento a la I+D+i, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago 8940577, Chile
4Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba 81531-990, Brazil
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-09-01


Recent advances on wireless energy transfer (WET) make it a promising solution for powering future Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices enabled by the upcoming sixth-generation (6G) era. The main architectures, challenges and techniques for efficient and scalable wireless powering are overviewed in this article. Candidates enablers, such as energy beamforming (EB), distributed antenna systems (DASs), advances on devices’ hardware and programmable medium, new spectrum opportunities, resource scheduling, and distributed ledger technology are outlined. Special emphasis is placed on discussing the suitability of channel state information (CSI)-limited/free strategies when powering simultaneously a massive number of devices. The benefits from combining DAS and EB, and from using average CSI whenever available, are numerically illustrated. The pros and cons of the state-of-the-art CSI-free WET techniques in ultralow power setups are thoroughly revised, and some possible future enhancements are outlined. Finally, key research directions toward realizing WET-enabled massive IoT networks in the 6G era are identified and discussed in detail.

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Series: IEEE internet of things journal
ISSN: 2372-2541
ISSN-E: 2327-4662
ISSN-L: 2327-4662
Volume: 8
Issue: 11
Pages: 8816 - 8835
DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2021.3050612
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by Academy of Finland (Aka) under Grant 319008, Grant 307492, and Grant 318927 (6Genesis Flagship); in part by FONDECYT Iniciación under Grant 11200659; in part by FONDECYT Regular under Grant 1201893; and in part by FONDEQUIP under Grant EQM180180, in Brazil by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), and Project Print CAPES-UFSC “Automation 4.0.”.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 319008
Detailed Information: 319008 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
307492 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors 2021. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see