University of Oulu

Mishev, A., Poluianov, S. About the Altitude Profile of the Atmospheric Cut-Off of Cosmic Rays: New Revised Assessment. Sol Phys 296, 129 (2021).

About the altitude profile of the atmospheric cut-off of cosmic rays : new revised assessment

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Author: Mishev, Alexander1,2; Poluianov, Stepan1,2,3
Organizations: 1Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Space Physics and Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-09-01


Cosmic rays, high-energy subatomic particles of extraterrestrial origin, are systematically measured by space-borne and ground-based instruments. A specific interest is paid to high-energy ions accelerated during solar eruptions, so-called solar energetic particles. In order to build a comprehensive picture of their nature, it is important to fill the gap and inter-calibrate ground-based and space-borne instruments. Here, we focus on ground-based detectors, specifically neutron monitors, which form a global network and provide continuous recording of cosmic ray intensity and its variability, used also to register relativistic solar energetic particles. The count rate of each neutron monitor is determined by the geomagnetic and atmospheric cut-offs, both being functions of the location. Here, on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations with the PLANETOCOSMICS code and by the employment of a new verified neutron monitor yield function, we assessed the atmospheric cut-off as a function of the altitude, as well as for specific stations located in the polar region. The assessed in this study altitude profile of the atmospheric cut-off for primary cosmic rays builds the basis for the joint analysis of strong solar proton events with different instruments and allows one to clarify recent definitions and related discussions about the new sub-class of events, so-called sub-ground-level enhancements (sub-GLEs).

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Series: Solar physics
ISSN: 0038-0938
ISSN-E: 1573-093X
ISSN-L: 0038-0938
Volume: 296
Issue: 8
Article number: 129
DOI: 10.1007/s11207-021-01875-5
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland (projects 330064 QUASARE and 321882 ESPERA). It was motivated and benefited from discussions in the framework of the International Space Science Institute International Team 441: High EneRgy sOlar partICle Events Analysis (HEROIC). SP acknowledges support by the Russian Science Foundation (RSF project No. 20-67-46016). Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 330064
Detailed Information: 330064 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit