University of Oulu

Kupila, R., Lappalainen, K., Hu, T., Heponiemi, A., Bergna, D., & Lassi, U. (2021). Production of ethyl lactate by activated carbon-supported Sn and Zn oxide catalysts utilizing lignocellulosic side streams. Applied Catalysis A: General, 624, 118327.

Production of ethyl lactate by activated carbon-supported Sn and Zn oxide catalysts utilizing lignocellulosic side streams

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Author: Kupila, Riikka1,2; Lappalainen, Katja1,2; Hu, Tao2;
Organizations: 1Unit of Applied Chemistry, Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 567, FIN-67101, Kokkola, Finland
2Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FIN-90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-09-01


In this study, activated carbon-supported Sn and Zn oxide catalysts were prepared from hydrolysis lignin and used for the conversion of model solutions of trioses, hexoses, and lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates to ethyl lactate. Both catalysts, SnO₂@AC and ZnO@AC, were able to produce ethyl lactate in high yields. SnO₂@AC was a more active and selective catalyst in triose (dihydroxyacetone) conversion, providing 99% yield to ethyl lactate. ZnO@AC, by contrast, was more selective in glucose and hydrolysate conversion, with a yield of 60% and 85%, respectively. The ethyl lactate yields were significantly higher than those from the optimized model solution experiments when using ZnO@AC catalyst. These findings indicate that milder acidity of the ZnO@AC catalyst together with Na⁺ and SO₄²⁻ in hydrolysate favored ethyl lactate production, preventing byproduct, furan derivatives and acetal, formation. Moreover, the catalysts were able to maintain their catalytic activity in recycling experiments.

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Series: Applied catalysis. A, General
ISSN: 0926-860X
ISSN-E: 1873-3875
ISSN-L: 0926-860X
Volume: 624
Article number: 118327
DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2021.118327
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Funding: Authors R.K. and K.L. would like to thank the Green Bioraff Solutions Project (EU/Interreg/Botnia-Atlantica, 20201508) for funding this research.
Copyright information: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (