University of Oulu

Su, A. H., Salo, H., Janz, J., Laurikainen, E., Venhola, A., Peletier, R. F., Iodice, E., Hilker, M., Cantiello, M., Napolitano, N., Spavone, M., Raj, M. A., van de Ven, G., Mieske, S., Paolillo, M., Capaccioli, M., Valentijn, E. A., & Watkins, A. E. (2021). The Fornax Deep Survey (FDS) with the VST. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 647, A100.

The Fornax Deep Survey (FDS) with the VST : XI. The search for signs of preprocessing between the Fornax main cluster and Fornax A group

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Author: Su, A. H.1; Salo, H.1; Janz, J.1,2;
Organizations: 1Space Physics and Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Finnish Centre of Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, 21500 Piikkiö, Finland
3Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen, The Netherlands
4INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
5European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
6INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico d’Abruzzo, Via Maggini, 64100 Teramo, Italy
7Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Wien, Austria
8European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
9University of Naples Federico II, C.U. Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Naples, Italy
10Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.1 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: EDP Sciences, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-09-02


Context: Galaxies either live in a cluster, a group, or in a field environment. In the hierarchical framework, the group environment bridges the field to the cluster environment, as field galaxies form groups before aggregating into clusters. In principle, environmental mechanisms, such as galaxy–galaxy interactions, can be more efficient in groups than in clusters due to lower velocity dispersion, which lead to changes in the properties of galaxies. This change in properties for group galaxies before entering the cluster environment is known as preprocessing. Whilst cluster and field galaxies are well studied, the extent to which galaxies become preprocessed in the group environment is unclear.

Aims: We investigate the structural properties of cluster and group galaxies by studying the Fornax main cluster and the infalling Fornax A group, exploring the effects of galaxy preprocessing in this showcase example. Additionally, we compare the structural complexity of Fornax galaxies to those in the Virgo cluster and in the field.

Methods: Our sample consists of 582 galaxies from the Fornax main cluster and Fornax A group. We quantified the light distributions of each galaxy based on a combination of aperture photometry, Sérsic+PSF (point spread function) and multi-component decompositions, and non-parametric measures of morphology. From these analyses, we derived the galaxy colours, structural parameters, non-parametric morphological indices (Concentration C; Asymmetry A, Clumpiness S; Gini G; second order moment of light M₂₀), and structural complexity based on multi-component decompositions. These quantities were then compared between the Fornax main cluster and Fornax A group. The structural complexity of Fornax galaxies were also compared to those in Virgo and in the field.

Results: We find significant (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test p-value < α = 0.05) differences in the distributions of quantities derived from Sérsic profiles (g′−r′, r′−i′, Re, and μ̄e,r′), and non-parametric indices (A and S) between the Fornax main cluster and Fornax A group. Fornax A group galaxies are typically bluer, smaller, brighter, and more asymmetric and clumpy. Moreover, we find significant cluster-centric trends with r′−i′, Re, and μ̄e,r′, as well as A, S, G, and M₂₀ for galaxies in the Fornax main cluster. This implies that galaxies falling towards the centre of the Fornax main cluster become fainter, more extended, and generally smoother in their light distribution. Conversely, we do not find significant group-centric trends for Fornax A group galaxies. We find the structural complexity of galaxies (in terms of the number of components required to fit a galaxy) to increase as a function of the absolute r′-band magnitude (and stellar mass), with the largest change occurring between −14 mag ≲Mr′ ≲ −19 mag (7.5 ≲ log₁₀(M*/M) ≲ 9.7). This same trend was found in galaxy samples from the Virgo cluster and in the field, which suggests that the formation or maintenance of morphological structures (e.g., bulges, bar) are largely due to the stellar mass of the galaxies, rather than the environment they reside in.

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Series: Astronomy and astrophysics
ISSN: 0004-6361
ISSN-E: 1432-0746
ISSN-L: 0004-6361
Volume: 647
Article number: A100
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202039633
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: We acknowledge financial support from the EuropeanUnion’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the MarieSkłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 721463 to the SUNDIAL ITN network. HS, EL, and AV are also supported by the Academy of Finland grant No. 297738. GvdV acknowledges funding from the European Research Council (ERC) underthe European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme undergrant agreement No. 724857 (Consolidator Grant ArcheoDyn).
EU Grant Number: (721463) SUNDIAL - SUrvey Network for Deep Imaging Analysis and Learning
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 297738
Detailed Information: 297738 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © ESO 2021.