University of Oulu

Khalifa, A., Bazhin, V., Kuskova, Y., Abdelrahim, A., & Ahmed, Y. (2021). Study the Recycling of Red Mud in Iron Ore Sintering Process. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 22(6), 191–201.

Study the recycling of red mud in iron ore sintering process

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Author: Khalifa, Ahmed Abdelazim1; Bazhin, Vladimir Yurievich2; Vadimovna, Kuskova Yana3;
Organizations: 1Department of Metallurgy, Saint Petersburg Mining University, St. Petersburg, 2, 21st Line, St Petersburg 199106, Russia
2Department of Minerals Technology and Processing, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 87, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt
3Department of ATP, St. Petersburg mining University, St. Petersburg, 2, 21st Line, St Petersburg 199106, Russia
4Process Metallurgy Research Group, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Finland
5Refractory and Ceramic Materials Department, Advanced Materials Division, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, CMRDI, PO. Box 87, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Gabriel Borowski, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-09-03


Red mud (RM), the by-product generated during the alumina extraction process, is considered a valuable secondary raw material, since iron (20–54%) represents its major constituent. Accordingly, the suitability of recycling this RM in the sintering process of Egyptian iron ore was studied. The effect of adding different amounts of RM to the sinter charge mixture (0–10 wt.%) on the sintering process performance as well as the chemical, physical and mechanical properties of the produced sinter was investigated. The results revealed that increasing the amount of red mud in the sinter charge mixture leads to a high improvement in the strength of the produced sinter till reaching a maximum at 7% addition, which deteriorates thereafter. Meanwhile, owing to the fine nature of the red mud, increasing its contents in the sinter charge mixture leads to reduced speed of the sintering process, which consequently affects the productivity at the blast furnace yard. The sinter produced with the addition of 3% red mud shows the highest reducibility. These results indicate the suitability of recycling RM in the Egyptian iron ore sintering process with an amount not higher than 3 wt.% of the total sinter mixture charge.

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Series: Journal of ecological engineering
ISSN: 2081-139X
ISSN-E: 2299-8993
ISSN-L: 2081-139X
Volume: 22
Issue: 6
Pages: 191 - 201
DOI: 10.12911/22998993/137966
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2021. License CC-BY 4.0.