University of Oulu

M. H. Behfar et al., "Fully Integrated Wireless Elastic Wearable Systems for Health Monitoring Applications," in IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1022-1027, June 2021, doi: 10.1109/TCPMT.2021.3082647

Fully integrated wireless elastic wearable systems for health monitoring applications

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Author: Behfar, Mohammad H.1; Di Vito, Donato2; Korhonen, Arttu1;
Organizations: 1VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 90570 Oulu, Finland
2Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Tampere University, 33720 Tampere, Finland
3Circuit and System Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-09-06


Advances in flexible and hybrid electronics promote increasing demands for wearable sensors in personal health, monitoring, and diagnostic medical gadgets. Conventional wearable devices rely on electronics based on rigid substrates and components with limited conformity to user skin. In this work, we report a fully integrated, stretchable wireless electrocardiography (ECG) system developed on highly elastic, ultra-thin ( 100 μm ) thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) film without any rigid or flexible interposer. Moreover, the circuit layout printing and component assembly are carried out through sheet-to-sheet (S2S) process directly on TPU film. This study utilizes both experimental reliability tests coupled with data acquired from finite element modeling (FEM) to assess performance and failure of the device under tensile loading. In such a complex system assembly, FEM simulation not only provides insights on the overall electromechanical performance of the device, but also facilitates localization of the failure points which are difficult to access for visual inspection. The performance of the device is also evaluated through controlled uniaxial cyclic strain at 5% and 10% elongation. The durability test shows that the assembled device can stay functional over hundreds of deformation cycles, suggesting that direct assembly of conventional components on stretchable substrate represents a promising approach for fully integrated stretchable devices, which is a step toward scalable manufacture of wearable stretchable electronics through high-throughput manufacturing processes.

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Series: IEEE transactions on components, packaging, and manufacturing technology
ISSN: 2156-3950
ISSN-E: 2156-3985
ISSN-L: 2156-3950
Volume: 11
Issue: 6
Pages: 1022 - 1027
DOI: 10.1109/TCPMT.2021.3082647
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work was supported in part by the Business Finland under Grant 3087/31/2018 and Grant 2947/31/2018 and in part by the Academy of Finland [utilized the Printed Intelligent Infrastructure (PII-FIRI)] under Grant 320019. The work of Matti Mäntysalo was supported by the Academy of Finland under Grant 288945 and Grant 292477.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 320019
Detailed Information: 320019 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
288945 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors 2021. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see