University of Oulu

Hietanen, M., Rusanen, J., Aikio, J., Tervo, N., Rahkonen, T., & Pärssinen, A. (2021). Ka-band time-domain multiplexing front-end with minimum switch area utilization on 22 nm fully depleted silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, 13(7), 641-651. doi:10.1017/S1759078721000428

Ka-band time-domain multiplexing front-end with minimum switch area utilization on 22 nm fully depleted silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology

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Author: Hietanen, Mikko1; Rusanen, Jere1; Aikio, Janne P.1;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Cambridge University Press, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-09-06


A time-domain duplexing radio frequency (RF) front-end with integrated antenna switch, power amplifier (PA), and low noise amplifier (LNA) was developed aiming for fifth-generation communication (5G) applications covering 24—28 GHz frequency range. Antenna switch utilizes pre-existing LNA input matching network together embedded with grounded shunt transistor switch to provide sufficient isolation of receive side from PA. Respectively, high impedance of off-state PA is assumed to achieve acceptable receive performance. Resulting output power is 13.6 dBm with 15 dB of peak small-signal gain at 28 GHz. Maximum average channel power was 4.8 dBm with 100 MHz 64-QAM OFDM signal within 5G adjacent channel power ratio and error vector magnitude specifications. Receive (RX) front-end achieves 5 dB noise figure at 24 GHz and 7 dB of peak gain. Performances of amplifiers degraded only by 2 dB from switch integration. The front-end dissipates 183 and 4.6 mW of power in transmit and receive mode, respectively. The simplistic design method minimizes cost both in circuit area (only 0.19 mm2) and design time making this front-end an attractive alternative in massive phased array applications using 22 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) fully depleted silicon on insulator process.

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Series: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies
ISSN: 1759-0787
ISSN-E: 1759-0795
ISSN-L: 1759-0787
Volume: 13
Pages: 641 - 651
DOI: 10.1017/S1759078721000428
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This research has been financially supported by the Academy of Finland 6Genesis Flagship (grant 318927) and Nokia Corporation Ltd. GLOBAL FOUNDRIES is acknowledged for silicon fabrication and technical support.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press in association with the European Microwave Association. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work.