University of Oulu

Jonne Ukkola, Markus Lampimäki, Ossi Laitinen, Tomi Vainio, Juha Kangasluoma, Erkki Siivola, Tuukka Petäjä, Henrikki Liimatainen, High-performance and sustainable aerosol filters based on hierarchical and crosslinked nanofoams of cellulose nanofibers, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 310, 2021, 127498, ISSN 0959-6526,

High-performance and sustainable aerosol filters based on hierarchical and crosslinked nanofoams of cellulose nanofibers

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Author: Ukkola, Jonne1; Lampimäki, Markus2; Laitinen, Ossi1;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
2Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR), University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 9.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-09-08


Nano-structured and porous foams derived from crosslinked cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were designed and tailored as highly efficient aerosol filters. The lignin-containing CNF was prepared from a recycled milk-container board using deep eutectic solvent pretreatment and mechanical grinding. The nanofoams or aerogels were formed in different densities (initial CNF concentration of 0.2–1.0 wt%) with a freeze-drying process using two silane compounds for strengthening the structure. The filtration performance of nanofoams was studied with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) setup using 10–500 nm NaCl aerosol particles. DMPS determines particle number size distribution of particles passing through nanofoams which is used to calculate the filtration performance. All nanofoams, which possessed porosity from 99.1% to 99.8% and specific surface area from 5.9 m² g⁻¹ to 18.6 m² g⁻¹, achieved good filtration performance (>96%) in the measured particle size range. Very high filtration efficiency (>gt;99.5%) was achieved with the 0.7 wt% nanofoam sample for particles smaller than 360 nm. Based on the quality factors (QF), 0.3 wt% nanofoam produced the lowest pressure drop yet with relatively high filtration efficiency and resulted in the highest QF value that met the N95 standard requirements of respirator face masks. The structure and thickness of the nanofoam filter makes possible high particle bearing without loss on its performance.

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Series: Journal of cleaner production
ISSN: 0959-6526
ISSN-E: 1879-1786
ISSN-L: 0959-6526
Volume: 310
Article number: 127498
DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.127498
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 221 Nanotechnology
215 Chemical engineering
Funding: This research was supported by the Academy of Finland BioFuture2025 project NanoBiomass (307535, 307537) and ACNF (325276). FESEM imaging was carried out with the support of Centre for Material Analysis, University of Oulu, Finland.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 307535
Detailed Information: 307535 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (