University of Oulu

Zong-Xian Zhang, Li-Yuan Chi, Changping Yi, An empirical approach for predicting burden velocities in rock blasting, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Volume 13, Issue 4, 2021, Pages 767-773, ISSN 1674-7755,

An empirical approach for predicting burden velocities in rock blasting

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Author: Zhang, Zong-Xian1; Chi, Li-Yuan2; Yi, Changping3
Organizations: 1Oulu Mining School, University of Oulu, Oulu, FI-90014, Finland
2State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China
3Division of Mining and Geotechnical Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-09-09


An analytical relation between burden velocity and ratio of burden to blasthole diameter is developed in this paper. This relation is found to be consistent with the measured burden velocities of all 37 full-scale blasts found from published articles. These blasts include single-hole blasts, multi-hole blasts, and simultaneously-initiated blasts with various borehole diameters such as 64 mm, 76 mm, 92 mm, 115 mm, 142 mm and 310 mm. All boreholes were fully charged. The agreement between measured and calculated burden velocities demonstrates that this relation can be used to predict the burden velocity of a wide range of full-scale blast with fully-coupled explosive charge and help to determine a correct delay time between adjacent holes or rows in various full-scale blasts involved in tunnelling (or drifting), surface and underground mining production blasts and underground opening slot blasts. In addition, this theoretical relation is found to agree with the measured burden velocities of 9 laboratory small-scale blasts to a certain extent. To predict the burden velocity of a small-scale blast, a further study or modification to the relation is necessary by using more small-scale blasts in the future.

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Series: Journal of rock mechanics and geotechnical engineering
ISSN: 1674-7755
ISSN-L: 1674-7755
Volume: 13
Issue: 4
Pages: 767 - 773
DOI: 10.1016/j.jrmge.2021.04.004
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
1171 Geosciences
Copyright information: © 2021 Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CCBY-NC-ND license (