University of Oulu

Laukkanen, A., Uusikallio, S., Lindroos, M., Andersson, T., Kömi, J., & Porter, D. (2021). Micromechanics driven design of ferritic–austenitic duplex stainless steel microstructures for improved cleavage fracture toughness. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 253, 107878.

Micromechanics driven design of ferritic–austenitic duplex stainless steel microstructures for improved cleavage fracture toughness

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Author: Laukkanen, Anssi1; Uusikallio, Sampo2; Lindroos, Matti1;
Organizations: 1Integrated Computational Materials Engineering, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Espoo, Finland
2University of Oulu, Centre for Advanced Steels Research, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 8.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-09-17


Ferritic–austenitic duplex stainless steels are known to offer favorable combinations of good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance to be used for structural purposes. Lean duplex grades have already been introduced for consideration to replace standard 18–8 austenitic stainless steels in various industrial applications. Ferrite and austenite represent different deformation behaviors and contribute to the resulting fracture toughness characteristics. Micromechanical crystal plasticity based assessment of this cleavage fracture behavior is the subject area of current work. The objective is to bridge cleavage fracture models to full field crystal plasticity imaging based modeling of microstructures of ferritic–austenitic duplex stainless steels. The goal is to introduce means to computationally assess the effects of different multi-phase microstructural morphologies to cleavage fracture toughness and develop both the respective constitutive and cleavage fracture modeling capabilities. Such means can be used as an aid to develop better cleavage resistant, while in the current context lean, steel grades. Three different steels are investigated with differing austenite phase morphologies, and their behavior with respect to fracture mechanical response evaluated by micromechanical modeling. The effect of austenite fraction and morphology in terms of improving fracture toughness, a critical parameter concerning these steel grades and improvement of their cleavage fracture properties, is investigated. Deleterious features such as large ferrite grain size and microstructural property mismatching are identified and their implications to fracture toughness and development of applicable modeling capabilities for ferritic–austenitic duplex steels discussed. Simple design task of varying the austenite phase fraction is performed using synthetic microstructural modeling and the results evaluated with respect to their influence on the fracture toughness ductile-to-brittle transition.

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Series: Engineering fracture mechanics
ISSN: 0013-7944
ISSN-E: 1873-7315
ISSN-L: 0013-7944
Volume: 253
Article number: 107878
DOI: 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2021.107878
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: This study has been carried out as part of the Finnish joint industrial consortium research action coordinated by DIMECC Ltd within the BSA Breakthrough Materials program in the FUNMODE project. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of Business Finland (formerly Tekes), the participating companies, and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. AL wishes to acknowledge the support of Academy of Finland through the HEADFORE project, Grant No. 333226. SU acknowledges Jenny and Antti Wihuri Foundation and Tauno Tönning Foundation for their financial support.
Copyright information: © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (