University of Oulu

Ramanathan, S.; Perumal, P.; Illikainen, M.; Suraneni, P. Mechanically Activated Mine Tailings for Use As Supplementary Cementitious Materials. RILEM Tech Lett 2021, 6, 61-69.

Mechanically activated mine tailings for use as supplementary cementitious materials

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Author: Ramanathan, Sivakumar1; Perumal, Priyadharshini2; Illikainen, Mirja2;
Organizations: 1Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33416, USA
2Faculty of Technology, Fiber and Particle Engineering Research Unit, PO Box 4300, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: RILEM Publications, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-09-21


Two mine tailings are evaluated for their potential as supplementary cementitious materials. The mine tailings were milled using two different methods — ball milling for 30 minutes and disc milling for durations ranging from 1 to 15 minutes. The modified R3 test was carried out on the mine tailings to quantify their reactivity. The reactivity of the disc milled tailings is greater than those of the ball milled tailings. Strong correlations are obtained between milling duration, median particle size, amorphous content, dissolved aluminum and silicon, and reactivity of the mine tailings. The milling energy results in an increase in the fineness and the amorphous content, which do not appreciably increase beyond a disc milling duration of 8 minutes. The reactivity increases significantly beyond a certain threshold fineness and amorphous content. Cementitious pastes were prepared at 30% supplementary cementitious materials replacement level at a water-to-cementitious materials ratio of 0.40. No negative effects of the mine tailings were observed at early ages in cement pastes based on isothermal calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, demonstrating the potential for these materials to be used as supplementary cementitious materials.

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Series: RILEM technical letters
ISSN: 2518-0231
ISSN-E: 2518-0231
ISSN-L: 2518-0231
Volume: 6
Pages: 61 - 69
DOI: 10.21809/rilemtechlett.2021.143
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 212 Civil and construction engineering
215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
217 Medical engineering
Funding: The financial support for the Sivakumar Ramanathan through the Dissertation Fellowship awarded by the University of Miami Graduate School is gratefully acknowledged. Priyadharshini Perumal and Mirja Illikainen gratefully acknowledge the financial support received from the project GEOMINS [Grant #319676: Steps towards the use of mine tailings in geopolymer materials: Reactivity, CO2 Sequestration and Heavy Metal Stabilization] funded by Academy of Finland and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under the Marie Skłodowska Curie Grant Agreement No [839848].
EU Grant Number: (839848) W2W - Waste to Wealth (W2W): A total solution for municipal solid waste incinerated ash in geopolymer concrete
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 319676
Detailed Information: 319676 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2021. This article is published with open access and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.