University of Oulu

Tapio, V., Hemadeh, I., Mourad, A. et al. Survey on reconfigurable intelligent surfaces below 10 GHz. J Wireless Com Network 2021, 175 (2021).

Survey on reconfigurable intelligent surfaces below 10 GHz

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Author: Tapio, Visa1; Hemadeh, Ibrahim2; Mourad, Alain2;
Organizations: 1Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2InterDigital Europe, Ltd, London, UK
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-09-22


Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) is a programmable structure that can be used to control the propagation of electromagnetic waves by changing the electric and magnetic properties of the surface. By placing these surfaces in an environment, the properties of radio channels can be controlled. This opens up new opportunities to improve the performance of wireless systems. In this paper, the basic operation of antenna array and metasurface based RIS is described. While the current long term (6G) research on RIS often prioritizes very high frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz, this paper puts emphasis rather on operating frequencies below 10 GHz which promise a much faster to market track for RIS applications. For this purpose, review of the literature on the use of RIS in wireless communication applications operating below 10 GHz frequency band is provided.

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Series: EURASIP journal on wireless communications and networking
ISSN: 1687-1472
ISSN-E: 1687-1499
ISSN-L: 1687-1472
Volume: 2021
Pages: 1 - 18
Article number: 175
DOI: 10.1186/s13638-021-02048-5
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: The research by V. Tapio and M. Juntti has been funded in part by InterDigital Corporation and the Academy of Finland 6Genesis Flagship (grant 318927).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit