University of Oulu

Maghrebi, M., Noori, R., Partani, S., Araghi, A., Barati, R., Farnoush, H., & Haghighi, A. T. (2021). Iran's groundwater hydrochemistry. Earth and Space Science, 8, e2021EA001793.

Iran’s groundwater hydrochemistry

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Author: Maghrebi, Mohsen1,2; Noori, Roohollah3; Partani, Sadegh4;
Organizations: 1Emkan Ab Tous Construction Company, Mashhad, Iran
2Hydropars Khorasan Consulting Engineers Company, Mashhad, Iran
3Water, Energy and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Bojnord, Bojnord, Iran
5Department of Water Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
6Department of Civil Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 15.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Geophysical Union, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-10-08


Iran’s groundwater hydrochemistry has not been well understood. In this study, Iran’s groundwater hydrochemistry is evaluated using a rich, ground-trusted data sampled from 9,468 wells distributed across the country in 2011. Twelve groundwater quality parameters were analyzed in each sample, resulting in 113,616 parameters over the study period. Examination of anions-cations shows that concentrations of sodium, calcium, chloride, and sulphate are higher than the acceptable threshold for drinking-use suggested by the World Health Organization in about 40%, 21%, 25%, and 20% of the samples, respectively. The results of the water quality index reveal that most of the groundwater resources in the central, southern and eastern regions of Iran, which supply the majority of the domestic water for populated cities, do not meet the requirements for drinking-use. Although the groundwater in northern parts fulfills the requirements for irrigation-use, it is only suitable for irrigation of salinity-friendly crops in central, eastern and southern regions. Ionic types and hydrochemistry facies indicate the dominance of mix water type in 13 out of 30 of Iran’s sub-basins, followed by sodium-chloride water type in nine sub-basins. Local geology and lithology are mainly attributed to the distribution of groundwater facies in Iran. In general, our findings reveal a distinctive relationship between Iran’s geological-geomorphological features and hydrochemical facies/groundwater quality. The findings can be used in the formulation of new strategies and policies for Iran’s groundwater quality management in the future.

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Series: Earth and space science
ISSN: 2333-5084
ISSN-E: 2333-5084
ISSN-L: 2333-5084
Volume: 8
Issue: 8
Article number: e2021EA001793
DOI: 10.1029/2021EA001793
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1172 Environmental sciences
1171 Geosciences
Dataset Reference: The raw data used in our study are publicly available via Data Archive of the Iran Water Resources Management Company (IWRMC) in This website is only available in Persian. The users should be first registered. Then, they can request any available data (groundwater data, surface water data, meteorological data, etc.) by selection of “Request Data” or in Persian: “درخواست آمار” in their registered personal page.
Copyright information: © 2021. The Authors. Earth and Space Science published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Geophysical Union. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.