University of Oulu

Isteri V, Ohenoja K, Hanein T, Kinoshita H, Illikainen M, Tanskanen P and Fabritius T (2021) The Effect of Fluoride and Iron Content on the Clinkering of Alite-Ye’elimite-Ferrite (AYF) Cement Systems. Front. Built Environ. 7:698830. doi: 10.3389/fbuil.2021.698830

The effect of fluoride and iron content on the clinkering of Alite-ye’elimite-ferrite (AYF) cement systems

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Author: Isteri, Visa1; Ohenoja, Katja2; Hanein, Theodore3;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Fibre and Particle Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Frontiers Media, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-10-11


Alite–ye’elimite–ferrite (AYF) cement is a more sustainable alternative to Portland cement (PC) that may offer improved mechanical, rheological, and chemical performance. Using traditional raw materials and conventional clinker processing conditions, alite (C₃S) and ye’elimite (C₄A₃$), the major phases in PC and calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements, respectively, cannot be coproduced. The typical formation temperature in the kiln for alite is >1350°C, but ye’elimite normally breaks down above 1300°C. However, with careful composition control and in the presence of fluoride, alite can be mineralized and formed at lower temperatures, thus enabling the production of AYF clinkers in a single stage. In this study, the production of AYF cement clinkers with different chemical compositions is attempted at 1250°C. The sensitivity of the fluoride content is initially assessed with a fixed target clinker composition to determine the optimal requirements. The effect of altering the target ferrite (C₄AF) and alite (C₃S) contents is also assessed followed by the effect of altering the target C₄AF and C₄A₃$ contents. It is shown that AYF clinkers can be produced in a single stage through the careful control of the fluoride content in the mix; however, the formation/persistence of belite and mayenite could not be avoided under the conditions tested. It is also shown that ∼10 wt% ferrite in the target composition provides sufficient AYF clinker burnability and the amount of fluoride needs to be controlled to avoid stabilization of mayenite.

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Series: Frontiers in built environment
ISSN: 2297-3362
ISSN-E: 2297-3362
ISSN-L: 2297-3362
Volume: 7
Article number: 698830
DOI: 10.3389/fbuil.2021.698830
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
212 Civil and construction engineering
Funding: The work was done for the CECIRE (1415/31/2015)-project, which was supported by Business Finland and the following companies: Boliden Harjavalta, Boliden Kokkola, Yara Suomi, Fortum Waste Solutions, and Outokumpu Stainless. The work was performed at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Sheffield. VI received funding from Finnish Steel and Metal Producers’ Fund and K.H. Renlund Foundation.
Copyright information: © 2021 Isteri, Ohenoja, Hanein, Kinoshita, Illikainen, Tanskanen and Fabritius. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.