University of Oulu

Clark D, Munten S, Herzig K-H and Gagnon DD (2021) Exogenous Ketone Salt Supplementation and Whole-Body Cooling Do Not Improve Short-Term Physical Performance. Front. Nutr. 8:663206. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2021.663206

Exogenous ketone salt supplementation and whole-body cooling do not improve short-term physical performance

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Author: Clark, Daniel1,2; Munten, Stephanie1,3; Herzig, Karl-Heinz4,5;
Organizations: 1Laboratory of Environmental Exercise Physiology, School of Kinesiology and Health Sciences, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, Canada
2Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine and Health Sciences, Tempe, AZ, United States
3Centre for Research in Occupational Safety and Health, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, Canada
4Research Unit of Biomedicine, Medical Research Center, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
5Institute of Pediatrics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
6Department of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Clinicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Frontiers Media, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-10-11


Exogenous ketone supplementation and whole-body cooling (WBC) have shown to independently influence exercise metabolism. Whether readily available ketone salts, with and without WBC, would provide similar metabolic benefits during steady-state aerobic and time-trial performances was investigated. Nine active males (VO2peak: 56.3 ± 2.2 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed three single-blind exercise sessions preceded by: (1) ingestion of placebo (CON), (2) ketone supplementation (0.3 g·kg−1 β-OHB) (KET), and (3) ketone supplementation with WBC (KETCO). Participants cycled in steady-state (SS, 60% Wmax) condition for 30-min, immediately followed by a 15-min time trial (TT). Skin and core temperature, cardio-metabolic, and respiratory measures were collected continuously, whereas venous blood samples were collected before and after supplementation, after SS and TT. Venous β-OHB was elevated, while blood glucose was lower, with supplementation vs. CON (p < 0.05). TT power output was not different between conditions (p = 0.112, CON: 190 ± 43.5 W, KET: 185 ± 40.4 W, KETCO: 211 ± 50.7 W). RER was higher during KETCO (0.97 ± 0.09) compared to both CON (0.88 ± 0.04, p = 0.012) and KET (0.88 ± 0.05, p = 0.014). Ketone salt supplementation and WBC prior to short-term exercise sufficiently increase blood β-OHB concentrations, but do not benefit metabolic shifts in fuel utilization or improve time trial performance.

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Series: Frontiers in nutrition
ISSN: 2296-861X
ISSN-E: 2296-861X
ISSN-L: 2296-861X
Volume: 8
Article number: 663206
DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2021.663206
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 315 Sport and fitness sciences
Funding: This research was supported by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Council (NSERC) of Canada under Grant [RGPIN-2016-06083].
Copyright information: © 2021 Clark, Munten, Herzig and Gagnon. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.