University of Oulu

T. M. Hewa, Y. Hu, M. Liyanage, S. S. Kanhare and M. Ylianttila, "Survey on Blockchain-Based Smart Contracts: Technical Aspects and Future Research," in IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 87643-87662, 2021, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3068178

Survey on blockchain-based smart contracts : technical aspects and future research

Saved in:
Author: Hewa, Tharaka Mawanane1; Hu, Yining2; Liyanage, Madhusanka1;
Organizations: 1Centre for Wireless Communication, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2IBM Australia
3Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.3 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-10-11


The industrial and computing research context revolutionized in various directions during the last decades. The blockchain-based smart contract embraced as a significant research interest due to its distinguishing features such as decentralized storage of transactions, autonomous execution of contract codes, and decentralized establishment of the trust. Blockchain-based smart contracts can transform the working architecture of almost all industries towards elevated service standards. The use cases of blockchain based smart contracts range from industrial applications such as cryptocurrency systems towards logistics, agriculture, real estate, energy trading and so forth. The decentralization concept of blockchain is one of the biggest leaps in technology research since future computing got a super momentum towards the Internet of Things (IoT) and edge computing. A plethora of research is in progress to investigate the opportunities for the applicability of smart contracts and blockchain technologies to various industries. It is important to identify the technical aspects of blockchain-based smart contracts to further improve and sharpen the capabilities which they already owed. This survey is conducted to identify the significant technical aspects of blockchain-based smart contracts with the associated future research directions.

see all

Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 9
Pages: 87643 - 87662
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3068178
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported by the 5GEAR Menot CWC-NS under Grant 2430299111, and in part by the framework of 6Genesis Flagship under Grant 318927.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors 2021. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see