University of Oulu

Näätänen, M., Kolehmainen, M., Laaksonen, D.E. et al. Post-weight loss changes in fasting appetite- and energy balance-related hormone concentrations and the effect of the macronutrient content of a weight maintenance diet: a randomised controlled trial. Eur J Nutr 60, 2603–2616 (2021).

Post-weight loss changes in fasting appetite- and energy balance-related hormone concentrations and the effect of the macronutrient content of a weight maintenance diet : a randomised controlled trial

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Author: Näätänen, Mari1; Kolehmainen, Marjukka1; Laaksonen, David E.2,3;
Organizations: 1Department of Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211, Kuopio, Finland
2Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
3Internal Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
4Institute of Biomedicine, Medical Research Center (MRC), University of Oulu, University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
5Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
6VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.5 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-10-13


Purpose: We investigated the effects of the macronutrient composition of diets with differing satiety values on fasting appetite-related hormone concentrations after weight loss and examined whether the hormone secretion adapted to changes in body fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) during the weight maintenance period (WM).

Methods: Eighty-two men and women with obesity underwent a 7-week very-low-energy diet (VLED) and were then randomised to a higher-satiety food (HSF) group or a lower-satiety food (LSF) group during 24-weeks of the WM. The groups consumed isoenergetic foods with different satiety ratings and macronutrient compositions.

Results: During the WM, the HSF group consumed more protein and dietary fibre and less fat than the LSF group, but the groups showed similar changes in body weight and fasting appetite-related hormones. In the whole study sample, VLED induced 12 kg (p < 0.001) weight loss. At the end of the WM, weight regain was 1.3 kg (p = 0.004), ghrelin concentration increased, whereas leptin, insulin, and glucose concentrations decreased compared to pre-VLED levels (p < 0.001 for all). Peptide YY did not differ from pre-VLED levels. Changes in ghrelin levels were inversely associated with changes in FFM during weeks 0–12 of the WM (p = 0.002), while changes in leptin and insulin levels were positively associated with changes in FM during weeks 0–12 (p = 0.015 and p = 0.038, respectively) and weeks 12–24 (p < 0.001 and p = 0.022) of the WM.

Conclusions: The macronutrient composition of an isoenergetic WM diet did not affect fasting appetite-related hormone concentrations. Leptin and insulin adjusted to the reduced FM, whereas ghrelin reflected FFM during the first months of the WM.

Trial registration:, ID 67529475.

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Series: European journal of nutrition
ISSN: 1436-6207
ISSN-E: 1436-6215
ISSN-L: 1436-6207
Volume: 60
Issue: 5
Pages: 2603 - 2616
DOI: 10.1007/s00394-020-02438-3
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3141 Health care science
3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Funding: Open access funding provided by University of Eastern Finland (UEF) including Kuopio University Hospital. This research was supported by the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, and Finnish food manufacturers (Atria Plc, Fazer Group Ltd, Arla Ingman Ltd, Valio Ltd, Sinebrychoff Ltd, Vaasan Ltd, Foodfiles Ltd, Leiras Finland Ltd) (no. 40100/07), the SalWe Research Program for Mind and Body (Tekes, no. 1104/10), the Academy of Finland (no. 286028), Olvi -foundation (no. 201910702, MK), and Juho Vainio Foundation (MN). This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 874739.
EU Grant Number: (874739) LONGITOOLS - Dynamic longitudinal exposome trajectories in cardiovascular and metabolic non-communicable diseases
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