University of Oulu

Kaitao Zhang, Mostafa Y. Ismail, Henrikki Liimatainen, Water-resistant nanopaper with tunable water barrier and mechanical properties from assembled complexes of oppositely charged cellulosic nanomaterials, Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 120, 2021, 106983, ISSN 0268-005X,

Water-resistant nanopaper with tunable water barrier and mechanical properties from assembled complexes of oppositely charged cellulosic nanomaterials

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Author: Zhang, Kaitao1; Ismail, Mostafa Y.1; Liimatainen, Henrikki1
Organizations: 1Fiber and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI, 90014, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-10-13


Owing to the intrinsic hydrophilicity of nanocellulose, films and nanopapers prepared from cellulosic nanomaterials exhibit weak mechanical strength when exposed to high-moisture conditions. In this study, an approach for designing a water resistant, assembled nanopaper through controlled and irreversible aqueous complexation of oppositely charged cellulose nanoconstituents, i.e., cationic cellulose nanocrystals (AH-CNC) and anionic cellulose nanofibers (TO-CNF), is proposed. The fabrication process and features of the nanopaper can be adjusted by altering of the AH-CNC/TO-CNF ratio. For example, the draining time during the filtration of a nanopaper decreased dramatically (480–10 min) when the dosage of nanocelluloses resulted in charge compensation. This dosage also reduced the swelling of the nanopaper. After all charged groups were neutralized, a nanopaper with a wet strength of 11 ± 3 MPa was obtained when immersed in water for 24 h. Furthermore, the electrostatic interaction between the charged nano-entities enhanced the mechanical properties of the nanopaper in dry state (the maximum of tensile strength was 174 ± 3 MPa) and resulted in improved water barrier properties (water vapor transmission rate of 1683 g μm m⁻² d⁻¹). This straightforward method based on simply aqueous mixing of two oppositely charged nanomaterials may provide a new pathway for the fabrication of various functionalized films and sheets with advanced characteristics from different type of charged nanoparticles and colloids.

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Series: Food hydrocolloids
ISSN: 0268-005X
ISSN-E: 1873-7137
ISSN-L: 0268-005X
Volume: 120
Article number: 106983
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2021.106983
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: The authors acknowledge the support from the Academy of Finland project “Bionanochemicals” (298295), European Regional Development Fund/Council of Oulu region (“Novidam” project), Tauno Tönning Foundation grants and the Scholarship Fund of the University of Oulu.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 298295
Detailed Information: 298295 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (