University of Oulu

Ahola, Markus; Bergström, Lena; Blomqvist, Mats; Boedeker, Dieter; Börgel, Florian; et al. (2021) Climate change in the Baltic Sea : 2021 fact sheet. Baltic Sea environment proceedings 180: 1-88.

Climate change in the Baltic Sea : 2021 fact sheet

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Author: Ahola, Markus1; Bergström, Lena2; Blomqvist, Mats3;
Organizations: 1Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden
2Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Sweden
3Hafok AB, Sweden
4German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN), Germany
5Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, (IOW), Germany
6Coalition Clean Baltic
7Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Sweden
8Arhus University, Denmark
9Århus University, Denmark
10Department of Biology, University of Turku, Finland
11St. Petersburg State Geological Unitary Enterprise "Specialized Firm Mineral", Russia
12Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (IOW), Germany
13Gavia EcoResearch, Germany
14Department of Bioscience, Århus University, Denmark
15Stockholm University, Baltic Nest Institute, Sweden
16University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Helsinki, Finland
17Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
18Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH), Germany
19Department of Economics and Management, University of Helsinki, Finland
20ProMare, Estonia
21Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Finland
23Marine research institute, Klaipėda University, Lithuania
24Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
25University of Turku, Finland
26Climate Department, Ministry of the Environment, Estonia
27Metsähallitus Parks & Wildlife Finland, Finland
28Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Finland
29Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Finland
31Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia
32University of Tartu, Estonia
33Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden
34Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (IOW), Germany, and Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Sweden
35Aquabiota Water Research, Sweden
36Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Norway
37Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, Sweden
38Marine Research Institute, Klaipeda University, Lithuania
39European Community Shipowners’ Associations
40Uppsala University, Sweden
41Geography Research Unit, University of Oulu, Finland
42National Marine Fisheries Research Institute (NMFRI), Poland
43Geological Survey of Finland, Finland
44Helmholtz Center for Material and Coastal Research (HZG), Germany
45Umeå University, Sweden
46Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), Germany
Format: report
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 14.8 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-10-14


Climate change effects on the Baltic Sea environment are manifold. It is for example expected that water temperature and sea level will rise, and sea ice cover will decrease. This will affect ecosystems and biota; for example, range shifts are expected for a number of marine species, benthic productivity will decrease, and breeding success of ringed seals will be reduced. The impacts will hence affect the overall ecosystem function and also extend to human uses of the sea; trawling will follow the fish towards southern areas, aquaculture will likely face a shift towards species diversification, and the value of most ecosystem services is expected to change — to name a few.

This Climate Change Fact Sheet provides the latest scientific knowledge on how climate change is currently affecting the Baltic Sea and how it is expected to develop in the foreseeable future. It is aimed at guiding policy makers to take climate change into account, but also to the general public. Updated Baltic Sea Climate Change Fact Sheets are expected to be published approximately every seven years.

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Series: Baltic Sea environment proceedings
ISSN: 0357-2994
ISSN-L: 0357-2994
Volume: 180
Pages: 1 - 88
Type of Publication: D4 Published development or research report or study
Field of Science: 519 Social and economic geography
Copyright information: © 2021 Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission.