University of Oulu

Särestöniemi, M.; Sonkki, M.; Myllymäki, S.; Pomalaza-Raez, C. Wearable Flexible Antenna for UWB On-Body and Implant Communications. Telecom 2021, 2, 285-301.

Wearable flexible antenna for UWB on-body and implant communications

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Author: Särestöniemi, Mariella1,2; Sonkki, Marko2; Myllymäki, Sami3;
Organizations: 1Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, 90220 Oulu, Finland
2Centre for Wireless Communications, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
3Microelectronics Research Unit, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
4Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, Fort Wayne, IN 46805, USA
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 52.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-10-18


This paper describes the development and evaluation of an on-body flexible antenna designed for an in-body application, as well as on-body communications at ISM and UWB frequency bands. The evaluation is performed via electromagnetic simulations using the Dassault Simulia CST Studio Suite. A planar tissue layer model, as well as a human voxel model from the human abdominal area, are used to study the antenna characteristics next to human tissues. Power flow analysis is presented to understand the power flow on the body surface as well as within the tissues. Simulation results show that this wearable flexible antenna is suitable for in-body communications in the intestinal area, e.g., for capsule endoscopy, in the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band and at lower ultra-wideband (UWB). At higher frequencies, the antenna is suitable for on-body communications as well as in-body communications with lower propagation depth requirements. Additionally, an antenna prototype has been prepared and the antenna performance is verified with several on-body measurements. The measurement results show a good match with the simulation results. The novelty of the proposed antenna is a compact size and the flexible substrate material, which makes it feasible and practical for several different medical diagnosis and monitoring applications.

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Series: Telecom
ISSN: 2673-4001
ISSN-E: 2673-4001
ISSN-L: 2673-4001
Volume: 2
Issue: 3
Pages: 285 - 301
DOI: 10.3390/telecom2030019
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This research was partially funded by Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, and supported by Academy of Finland 6Genesis Flagship (grant 318927), with the European Union Horizon 2020 programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement (No. 872752).
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (