University of Oulu

Xu, Y., Ahokangas, P., Yrjölä, S. et al. The fifth archetype of electricity market: the blockchain marketplace. Wireless Netw 27, 4247–4263 (2021).

The fifth archetype of electricity market : the blockchain marketplace

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Author: Xu, Yueqiang1; Ahokangas, Petri1; Yrjölä, Seppo2;
Organizations: 1Martti Ahtisaari Institute, OBS, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, P.O. Box 4600, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Nokia, Kaapelitie 4, 90620 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-10-20


Enabling and empowering the diverse energy resources to have active yet efficient participation in the smart grid and energy market is an unrivaled challenge for the energy industry. This research expands the four dominant archetypes of business models in the energy and electricity market, creating a fifth archetype, the “blockchain marketplace”. The contributions of the study are to identify the extant electricity market designs and architectures as centralized and pseudo-decentralized while proposing a fully decentralized architecture enabled by the blockchain. The research contributes to the literature of smart grids and demand-side management and introduces the value configuration/architecture approach for the energy market and business model domains.

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Series: Wireless networks : the journal of mobile communication, computation and information
ISSN: 1022-0038
ISSN-E: 1572-8196
ISSN-L: 1022-0038
Issue: 27
Pages: 4247 - 4263
DOI: 10.1007/s11276-019-02065-9
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 512 Business and management
Funding: Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.