University of Oulu

Kallio, R., Tanskanen, P., & Luukkanen, S. (2021). Magnetic Preconcentration and Process Mineralogical Study of the Kiviniemi Sc-Enriched Ferrodiorite. Minerals, 11(9), 966. doi:10.3390/min11090966

Magnetic preconcentration and process mineralogical study of the Kiviniemi Sc-enriched ferrodiorite

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Author: Kallio, Rita1; Tanskanen, Pekka2; Luukkanen, Saija1
Organizations: 1Oulu Mining School, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
2Process Metallurgy, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-10-22


Scandium is classified as a critical raw material by the European Union. Its beneficiation from various primary and secondary sources is currently being studied under several research and development projects. Due to the geochemical characteristics of Sc, its enrichment to ore grades by geological processes is scarce. Potential new sources are investigated to respond to the expected increasing demand for this rare earth metal. The recently discovered Kiviniemi Sc deposit in Finland represents an igneous occurrence with estimated total resources of 13.4 Mt and an average Sc grade of 163 g/t. The deposit consists of relatively homogeneous ferrodioritic intrusive body with its main unit with ~2.5 ha surface extension. Scandium is mainly incorporated into the lattice of clinopyroxene and amphibole within the main unit. Composite samples from three drill cores from various parts of the main unit were concentrated with a combination of low-intensity and high-gradient magnetic separation. Depending on the feed characteristics, high-gradient magnetic separation reached recoveries between 87% and 92% with 230–310 ppm Sc while removing 35–49 mass percent of gangue minerals, mainly plagioclase and potassium feldspar. Our study provides information on the magnetic preconcentration conditions with process mineralogical details and produced concentrates for further testing according to the suggested processing scheme.

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Series: Minerals
ISSN: 2075-163X
ISSN-E: 2075-163X
ISSN-L: 2075-163X
Volume: 11
Issue: 9
Article number: 966
DOI: 10.3390/min11090966
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1171 Geosciences
216 Materials engineering
Funding: This research has been funded by The Foundation for Research of Natural Resources in Finland, grant number 2019035.
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (