University of Oulu

Rafati, M., Mostafapour, A., Laieghi, H., Somani, M. C., & Kömi, J. (2021). Characterization of Friction Stir and TIG Welded CK45 Carbon Steel. Materials, 14(15), 4098. doi:10.3390/ma14154098

Characterization of friction stir and TIG welded CK45 carbon steel

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Author: Rafati, Mohammadreza1; Mostafapour, Amir1; Laieghi, Hossein1;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, PO Box 51666-16471 Tabriz, Iran
2Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, PO Box 4200, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-10-22


The present paper aims to compare the microstructural and mechanical properties of CK45 carbon steel plates, joined by friction stir (FSW) and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding methods. Besides visual inspection, the welded joints and the base material were subsequently evaluated in respect of optical microstructures, hardness and tensile properties. Sound joints could be accomplished using both the FSW and TIG welding methods through proper selection of process parameters and the filler metal. The influence of a water-cooling system on the FSW and various filler metals on the quality of TIG welding were further assessed. Both the FS welded sample as well as TIG welded samples with two different filler metals ER70S-6 and ER80S-B2 exhibited brittle behavior that could be mitigated through optimized water cooling and use of R60 filler metal. A drastic reduction of brittle martensite phase constituent in the microstructure corroborated significant improvements in mechanical properties of the welded zones for both the FSW sample as well as TIG welded samples with R60 filler metal.

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Series: Materials
ISSN: 1996-1944
ISSN-E: 1996-1944
ISSN-L: 1996-1944
Volume: 14
Issue: 15
Article number: 4098
DOI: 10.3390/ma14154098
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: M.R., A.M. and H.L. express their gratitude to the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Tabriz for support of the current study. M.C.S. and J.K. would like to thank the Academy of Finland for providing funding within the framework of the Genome of Steel project (Project#311934) to conduct this research work.
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (