University of Oulu

Raija Pentinpuro, Raija Lähdesmäki, Paula Pesonen & Lassi Alvesalo (2022) Crown heights in the permanent teeth of 47,XXY males and 47,XXX females, Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 80:3, 218-225, DOI: 10.1080/00016357.2021.1989031

Crown heights in the permanent teeth of 47,XXY males and 47,XXX females

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Author: Pentinpuro, Raija1,2; Lähdesmäki, Raija1,2; Pesonen, Paula2,3;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, Oral Development and Orthodontics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Oulu University Hospital, MRC Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Infrastructure for Population Studies, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Informa, 2022
Publish Date: 2021-11-01


Objective: Earlier results based on dental casts and radiographs have shown that additional X and Y chromosomes influence permanent and deciduous tooth crown sizes, with 47,XYY males exhibiting greater crown heights than 46,XY males. We studied here the effect of both X and Y chromosomes on tooth crown heights.

Material and methods: The series consisted of 48 47,XXY males, 22 of their male relatives, and seven 47,XXX females with five female relatives. The population controls consisted of 27 males and 33 females. Measurements of all applicable teeth except for the third molars on both sides of the jaws were made on panoramic radiographs with a sliding digital calliper.

Results: Apart from a few teeth, the mean crown heights in the 47,XXY males were greater than those in the male population controls, the differences being statistically significant for one tooth in the maxilla and ten teeth in the mandible. With the exception of two teeth, the 47,XXX females had taller tooth crowns than the female population controls, the differences in the two teeth being statistically significant. The 47,XXY males had greater tooth crown heights than the 47,XXX females, except in one tooth, and the differences were significant in two teeth. The tooth crown heights of the male relatives of the 47,XXY males and the female relatives of the 47,XXX females were close to those in the general population.

Conclusions: The present results demonstrated the effect of additional X and Y chromosomes in increasing crown heights. The differences between the 47,XXY males and 47,XXX females indicated a stronger effect of a Y chromosome on tooth crown height than of an X chromosome.

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Series: Acta odontologica Scandinavica
ISSN: 0001-6357
ISSN-E: 1502-3850
ISSN-L: 0001-6357
Volume: 80
Issue: 3
Pages: 218 - 225
DOI: 10.1080/00016357.2021.1989031
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 313 Dentistry
Funding: This work was supported by the Finnish State Research Funding under the VTR scheme. The KVANTTI dental research project has been supported financially by the Emil Aaltonen Foundation, the University of Turku Foundation, the Academy of Finland, the Finnish Dental Society, Apollonia and the Tyyne Tani Foundation (University of Oulu).
Copyright information: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Society. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.