University of Oulu

Mazumder, A.H.; Barnett, J.; Isometsä, E.T.; Lindberg, N.; Torniainen-Holm, M.; Lähteenvuo, M.; Lahdensuo, K.; Kerkelä, M.; Ahola-Olli, A.; Hietala, J.; Kampman, O.; Kieseppä, T.; Jukuri, T.; Häkkinen, K.; Cederlöf, E.; Haaki, W.; Kajanne, R.; Wegelius, A.; Männynsalo, T.; Niemi-Pynttäri, J.; Suokas, K.; Lönnqvist, J.; Tiihonen, J.; Paunio, T.; Vainio, S.J.; Palotie, A.; Niemelä, S.; Suvisaari, J.; Veijola, J. Reaction Time and Visual Memory in Connection to Alcohol Use in Persons with Bipolar Disorder. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 1154.

Reaction time and visual memory in connection to alcohol use in persons with bipolar disorder

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Author: Mazumder, Atiqul Haq1; Barnett, Jennifer2; Isometsä, Erkki Tapio3,4;
Organizations: 1Department of Psychiatry, Research Unit of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Cambridge Cognition, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB25 9TU, UK
3Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital and University of Helsinki, 00029 Helsinki, Finland
4Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
5Mental Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), 00271 Helsinki, Finland
6Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Niuvanniemi Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, 70240 Kuopio, Finland
7Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
8Mehiläinen, Pohjoinen Hesperiankatu 17 C, 00260 Helsinki, Finland
9Department of Psychiatry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
10Department of Psychiatry, Turku University Hospital, 20521 Turku, Finland
11Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, 33014 Tampere, Finland
12Department of Psychiatry, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, 33521 Tampere, Finland
13Social Services and Health Care Sector, City of Helsinki, 00099 Helsinki, Finland
14Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
15Center for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm City Council, 11364 Stockholm
16Infotech Oulu, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
17Northern Finland Biobank Borealis, Oulu University Hospital, 90220 Oulu, Finland
18Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
19Kvantum Institute, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
20Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, The Broad Institute of MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
21Analytical and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
22Department of Psychiatry, Oulu University Hospital, 90220 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-11-01


The purpose of this study was to explore the association of cognition with hazardous drinking and alcohol-related disorder in persons with bipolar disorder (BD). The study population included 1268 persons from Finland with bipolar disorder. Alcohol use was assessed through hazardous drinking and alcohol-related disorder including alcohol use disorder (AUD). Hazardous drinking was screened with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for Consumption (AUDIT-C) screening tool. Alcohol-related disorder diagnoses were obtained from the national registrar data. Participants performed two computerized tasks from the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) on A tablet computer: the 5-choice serial reaction time task, or reaction time (RT) test and the Paired Associative Learning (PAL) test. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Mental Health Inventory with five items (MHI-5). However, no assessment of current manic symptoms was available. Association between RT-test and alcohol use was analyzed with log-linear regression, and eβ with 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. PAL first trial memory score was analyzed with linear regression, and β with 95% CI are reported. PAL total errors adjusted was analyzed with logistic regression and odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI are reported. After adjustment of age, education, housing status and depression, hazardous drinking was associated with lower median and less variable RT in females while AUD was associated with a poorer PAL test performance in terms of the total errors adjusted scores in females. Our findings of positive associations between alcohol use and cognition in persons with bipolar disorder are difficult to explain because of the methodological flaw of not being able to separately assess only participants in euthymic phase.

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Series: Brain sciences
ISSN: 2076-3425
ISSN-E: 2076-3425
ISSN-L: 2076-3425
Volume: 11
Issue: 9
Article number: 1154
DOI: 10.3390/brainsci11091154
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3112 Neurosciences
3124 Neurology and psychiatry
Funding: The work was supported by a grant from the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA (grant agreement nos. 6045290-5500000710 and 6000009-5500000710). The principal author was supported by the H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions co-funding of regional, national, and international programs (COFUND) (grant agreement no. 713606) for his doctoral program (MSC-COFUND, I4FUTURE). The principal author was also supported by the Iso-Mällisen Foundation (Iso-Mällisen Säätiö) through a medical grant of EUR 4000 for the year 2019 (grant no. 0400 584622).
EU Grant Number: (713606) I4FUTURE - Novel Imaging and Characterisation Methods in Bio, Medical, and Environmental Research and Technology Innovations
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (