University of Oulu

Ivaska, L.E., Silvoniemi, A., Palomares, O., Turunen, R., Waris, M., Mikola, E., Puhakka, T., Söderlund-Venermo, M., Akdis, M., Akdis, C.A. and Jartti, T. (2021), Persistent human bocavirus 1 infection and tonsillar immune responses. Clin Transl Allergy, 11: e12030.

Persistent human bocavirus 1 infection and tonsillar immune responses

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Author: Ivaska, Lotta E.1; Silvoniemi, Antti1; Palomares, Oscar2,3,4;
Organizations: 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland
2Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research, University of Zürich, Davos, Switzerland
3Christine Kühne-Center for Allergy Research and Education, Davos, Switzerland
4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Chemistry, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
5Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland
6Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
7Clinical Microbiology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
8Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
9Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Satakunta Central Hospital, Pori, Finland
10Department of Virology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
11Department of Pediatrics, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-11-01


Background: Persistent human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) infection is a common finding in patients suffering from chronic tonsillar disease. However, the associations between HBoV1 infection and specific immune reactions are not completely known. We aimed to compare in vivo expression of T-cell cytokines, transcription factors, and type I/III interferons in human tonsils between HBoV1-positive and -negative tonsillectomy patients.

Methods: Tonsil tissue samples, nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), and serum samples were obtained from 143 immunocompetent adult and child tonsillectomy patients. HBoV1 and 14 other respiratory viruses were detected in NPAs and tonsil tissues by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serology and semi-quantitative PCR were used for diagnosing HBoV1 infections. Expression of 14 cytokines and transcription factors (IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IL-28, IL-29, IL-37, TGF-β, FOXP3, GATA3, RORC2, Tbet) was analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in tonsil tissues.

Results: HBoV1 was detected by PCR in NPA and tonsils from 25 (17%) study patients. Serology results indicated prior nonacute infections in 81% of cases. Tonsillar cytokine responses were affected by HBoV1 infection. The suppression of two transcription factors, RORC2 and FOXP3, was associated with HBoV1 infection (p < 0.05). Furthermore, intratonsillar HBoV1-DNA loads correlated negatively with IFN-λ family cytokines and IL-13.

Conclusions: Our study shows distinctively decreased T-helper₁₇ and T-regulatory type immune responses in local lymphoid tissue in HBoV1-positive tonsillectomy patients. HBoV1 may act as a suppressive immune modulator.

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Series: Clinical and translational allergy
ISSN: 2045-7022
ISSN-E: 2045-7022
ISSN-L: 2045-7022
Volume: 11
Issue: 6
Article number: e12030
DOI: 10.1002/clt2.12030
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
3125 Otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology
Funding: Lotta E. Ivaska was supported by the Allergy Research Foundation, The Finnish ORL- HNS Foundation and the Finnish Cultural Foundation, all in Helsinki, Finland. Emilia Mikola was supported by the Finnish Cultural Foundation, in Helsinki, Finland. Tuomas Jartti was supported by The Sigrid Juselius Foundation, Paulo Foundation and Foundation for Pediatric Research, all in Helsinki, Finland.
Copyright information: © 2021 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Allergy published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.