University of Oulu

Lahti, A-M, Nätynki, M, Huhtakangas, J, et al. Long-term survival after primary intracerebral hemorrhage: A population-based case–control study spanning a quarter of a century. Eur J Neurol. 2021; 28: 3663– 3669.

Long-term survival after primary intracerebral hemorrhage : a population-based case–control study spanning a quarter of a century

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Author: Lahti, Anna-Maija1,2; Nätynki, Mirva1,2; Huhtakangas, Juha1,2;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Medical Research Center Oulu Brain Health, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
3Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology Research Unit, Oulu University Hospital, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
5Division of Operative Care, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
6Surgery, Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-11-11


Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the differences in life expectancy and causes of death after primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) relative to general population controls.

Methods: In a population-based setting, 963 patients from Northern Ostrobothnia who had their first-ever ICH between 1993 and 2008 were compared with a cohort of 2884 sex- and age-matched controls in terms of dates and causes of death as extracted from the Causes of Death Register kept by Statistics Finland and valid up to the end of 2017.

Results: Of our 963 patients, 781 died during the follow-up time (mortality 81.1%). Cerebrovascular disease was the most common cause of death for these patients, 37.3% compared with 8.2% amongst the controls. The most common reasons for cerebrovascular mortality in the ICH patients were late sequelae of ICH in 12.8% (controls 0%) and new bleeding in 10.6% (controls 1.0%). The long-term survivors had a smaller ICH volume (median 12 ml) than those patients who died within 3 months (median 39 ml). The mortality rate of ICH patients during a follow-up between 12 and 24 years was still higher than that of their controls (hazard ratio 2.08, 95% confidence interval 1.58–2.74, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Very long-term ICH survivors have a constant excess mortality relative to controls even 10 years after the index event. A significantly larger proportion of patients died of cerebrovascular causes and fewer because of cancer relative to the controls.

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Series: European journal of neurology
ISSN: 1351-5101
ISSN-E: 1468-1331
ISSN-L: 1351-5101
Volume: 28
Issue: 11
Pages: 3663 - 3669
DOI: 10.1111/ene.14988
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3124 Neurology and psychiatry
Funding: Suomen Kulttuurirahasto, Orionin Tutkimussäätiö ja Epilepsiatutkimussäätiö.
Copyright information: © 2021 The Authors. European Journal of Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Neurology. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.