University of Oulu

Saber Aradpour, Roohollah Noori, Mohammad Reza Vesali Naseh, Majid Hosseinzadeh, Salman Safavi, Fardin Ghahraman-Rozegar & Mohsen Maghrebi (2021) Alarming carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of heavy metals in Sabalan dam reservoir, Northwest of Iran, Environmental Pollutants and Bioavailability, 33:1, 278-291, DOI:

Alarming carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of heavy metals in Sabalan dam reservoir, Northwest of Iran

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Author: Aradpour, Saber1; Noori, Roohollah2,3; Vesali Naseh, Mohammad Reza4;
Organizations: 1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA USA
2Water, Energy and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Finland
3School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
4Department of Civil Engineering, Arak University, Arak, Iran
5Department of Civil Engineering, Malard Branch, Islamic Azad University, Malard, Iran
6School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Informa, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-11-16


This research aims to assess contamination status of water and sediment in Sabalan dam reservoir (SDR) and evaluate the impact of water withdrawal depths on the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of metals for exposed people. Results of metal pollution indices revealed some degree of pollution in water and sediment of the reservoir, especially associated with arsenic. Risk assessment of metals in water of the SDR for non-carcinogenic materials through different scenarios of water withdrawal depth revealed that consuming water from the depth of 10 m can be somewhat troublesome to human health. The carcinogenic risk of arsenic from depth of 10 m of the reservoir was about four times greater than that from water surface. Minimum carcinogenic risk of consuming water in the reservoir was found to be 1.69 × 10E-4, which is higher than the maximum limit proposed by the U.S. EPA, indicating the water consumption from the SDR can result in harmful effects on human health.

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Series: Environmental pollutants & bioavailability
ISSN: 2639-5932
ISSN-E: 2639-5940
ISSN-L: 2639-5932
Volume: 33
Issue: 1
Pages: 278 - 291
DOI: 10.1080/26395940.2021.1978868
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This research was supported by the Ardabil Regional Water Authority Major Project: Reduced-Order Modeling of Eutrophication and Water Quality of the Most Important Dams in Ardabil Province (Case Study: Sabalan Dam) (No. ARE-93037). The corresponding author has benefited from the Arctic Interactions (ArcI) Visit Grant program, Profi 4, University of Oulu during this research.
Copyright information: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.