University of Oulu

Stober, G., Kozlovsky, A., Liu, A., Qiao, Z., Tsutsumi, M., Hall, C., Nozawa, S., Lester, M., Belova, E., Kero, J., Espy, P. J., Hibbins, R. E., and Mitchell, N.: Atmospheric tomography using the Nordic Meteor Radar Cluster and Chilean Observation Network De Meteor Radars: network details and 3D-Var retrieval, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6509–6532,, 2021

Atmospheric tomography using the Nordic Meteor Radar Cluster and Chilean Observation Network De Meteor Radars : network details and 3D-Var retrieval

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Author: Stober, Gunter1; Kozlovsky, Alexander2; Liu, Alan3;
Organizations: 1Institute of Applied Physics & Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research, Microwave Physics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
2Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Center for Space and Atmospheric Research and Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL, USA
4National Institute of Polar Research, Tachikawa, Japan
5The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Tokyo, Japan
6Tromsø Geophysical Observatory UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
7Division for Ionospheric and Magnetospheric Research Institute for Space-Earth Environment Research, Nagoya University, Japan
8Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
9Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF), Kiruna, Sweden
10Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway
11Birkeland Centre for Space Science, Bergen, Norway
12British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK
13Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, UK
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 15 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Copernicus Publications, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-11-17


Ground-based remote sensing of atmospheric parameters is often limited to single station observations by vertical profiles at a certain geographic location. This is a limiting factor for investigating gravity wave dynamics as the spatial information is often missing, e.g., horizontal wavelength, propagation direction or intrinsic frequency. In this study, we present a new retrieval algorithm for multistatic meteor radar networks to obtain tomographic 3-D wind fields within a pre-defined domain area. The algorithm is part of the Agile Software for Gravity wAve Regional Dynamics (ASGARD) and called 3D-Var, and based on the optimal estimation technique and Bayesian statistics. The performance of the 3D-Var retrieval is demonstrated using two meteor radar networks: the Nordic Meteor Radar Cluster and the Chilean Observation Network De Meteor Radars (CONDOR). The optimal estimation implementation provide statistically sound solutions and diagnostics from the averaging kernels and measurement response. We present initial scientific results such as body forces of breaking gravity waves leading to two counter-rotating vortices and horizontal wavelength spectra indicating a transition between the rotational k⁻³ and divergent k−5/3 mode at scales of 80–120 km. In addition, we performed a keogram analysis over extended periods to reflect the latitudinal and temporal impact of a minor sudden stratospheric warming in December 2019. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of the 3D-Var algorithm to perform large-scale retrievals to derive meteorological wind maps covering a latitude region from Svalbard, north of the European Arctic mainland, to central Norway.

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Series: Atmospheric measurement techniques
ISSN: 1867-1381
ISSN-E: 1867-8548
ISSN-L: 1867-1381
Volume: 14
Issue: 10
Pages: 6509 - 6532
DOI: 10.5194/amt-14-6509-2021
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: This research has been supported by the STFC (grant no. ST/S000429/1 to Mark Lester) and the Schweizerische Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung (grant no. 200021_200517/1 to Gunter Stober). The Esrange meteor radar operation, maintenance and data collection were provided by the Esrange Space Center of the Swedish Space Corporation. The 3D-Var retrievals were developed as part of the ARISE design study (, last access: 8 October 2020) funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development. This work was supported by the Research Council of Norway under the project Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System – Infrastructure development of the Norwegian node (SIOS-InfraNor, project no. 269927). This study is partly supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (no. 17H02968) of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).
Copyright information: © Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.