Savukoski, S., Niinimäki, M., Pesonen, P., Auvinen, J., Männistö, T., Puukka, K., Ebeling, T., Suvanto, E. (2021) Is climacterium by the mid-40s associated with thyroid dysfunction or autoimmunity? A population-based study. Menopause, 28 (9), 1053-1059. doi:10.1097/GME.0000000000001800
Is climacterium by the mid-40s associated with thyroid dysfunction or autoimmunity? : a population-based study
|Author:||Savukoski, Susanna M.1,2; Niinimäki, Maarit J.1,2; Pesonen, Paula RO.3;|
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, PEDEGO Research Unit, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, OYS, Finland
2Medical Research Centre Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Infrastructure for Population Studies, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Centre for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
5NordLab Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
6Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
7Department of Internal Medicine, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, OYS, Finland
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2021111755752
|Publish Date:|| 2022-09-30
Objective: We investigated whether more advanced climacteric stage in the mid-40s is associated with thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction.
Methods: This cross-sectional cohort study included 2,569 46-year-old women. Thyroid hormone, thyroid peroxidase antibodies, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were determined. Using menstrual history and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, the participants were divided into climacteric (n = 340) and preclimacteric (n = 2,229) groups. Women diagnosed with premature ovarian insufficiency (menopause by 40 y of age) were excluded. The use of thyroid medication was evaluated from the medication reimbursement register. The prevalence of thyroid medication use, laboratory-based thyroid dysfunction, and thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity was compared between the two groups. The association between climacteric status and thyroid disorders was investigated using a logistic regression model including smoking and thyroid antibody status.
Results: At 46 years old, climacteric women used thyroid medication more often than preclimacteric women (9.1% vs 6.1%; P = 0.04). There was no difference in the prevalence of subclinical or clinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in nonmedicated participants (5.5% vs 5.0%; P = 0.7) or thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity (14.0% vs 15.0%, P = 0.7). In the regression model, being climacteric (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.1–2.3; P = 0.02) and antibody positivity (OR 4.9; 95% CI 3.6–6.6; P < 0.001) were associated with a higher prevalence of thyroid dysfunction.
Conclusions: More advanced climacteric stage in the mid-40s was slightly associated with thyroid dysfunction but not thyroid autoimmunity.
|Pages:||1053 - 1059|
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics
J.A., P.P., T.M., K.P., T.E., and E.S. received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. M.N. received a research grant from the University of Oulu. S.S. received a research grant from the Finnish Menopause Society, Juho Vainio Foundation, and Finnish Medical Foundation.
© 2021 The North American Menopause Society. The final authenticated version is available online at https://doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001800.