University of Oulu

Gyakwaa, F.; Alatarvas, T.; Shu, Q.; Aula, M.; Fabritius, T. Characterization of Synthetic Non-Metallic Inclusions Consisting of TiN, Ti₂O₃, and Oxides of Al₂O₃ and MgO·Al₂O₃ Spinel Using Raman Spectroscopy. Metals 2021, 11, 1549.

Characterization of synthetic non-metallic inclusions consisting of TiN, Ti₂O₃, and oxides of Al₂O₃ and MgO·Al₂O₃ spinel using Raman spectroscopy

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Author: Gyakwaa, Francis1; Alatarvas, Tuomas1; Shu, Qifeng1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
2Luxmet Ltd., Paavo Havaksen tie 5 D, FI-90570 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-11-17


Steel quality and properties can be affected by the formation of complex inclusions, including Ti-based inclusions such as TiN and Ti₂O3 and oxides like Al₂O₃ and MgO·Al₂O₃ (MA). This study assessed the prospective use of Raman spectroscopy to characterize synthetic binary inclusion samples of TiN–Al₂O₃, TiN–MA, Ti₂O₃–MA, and Ti₂O₃–Al₂O₃ with varying phase fractions. The relative intensities of the Raman peaks were used for qualitative evaluation and linear regression calibration models were used for the quantitative prediction of individual phases. The model performance was evaluated with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP). For the raw Raman spectra data, R² values were between 0.48–0.98, the RMSECV values varied between 3.26–14.60 wt%, and the RMSEP ranged between 2.98–15.01 wt% for estimating the phases. The SNV Raman spectra data had estimated R² values within 0.94–0.99 and RMSECV and RMSEP values ranged between 2.50–3.26 wt% and 2.80–9.01 wt%, respectively, showing improved model performance. The study shows that the specific phases of TiN, Al₂O₃, MA, and Ti₂O₃ in synthetic inclusion mixtures of TiN–(Al₂O₃ or MA) and Ti₂O₃–(Al₂O₃ or MA) could be characterized by the Raman spectroscopy.

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Series: Metals
ISSN: 2075-4701
ISSN-E: 2075-4701
ISSN-L: 2075-4701
Volume: 11
Issue: 10
Article number: 1549
DOI: 10.3390/met11101549
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
114 Physical sciences
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (