University of Oulu

Erstad, O., Kjällander, S., & Järvelä, S. (2021). Facing the challenges of ‘digital competence.’. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy 16(2), 77–87,

Facing the challenges of ‘digital competence’ : a Nordic agenda for curriculum development for the 21st century

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Author: Erstad, Ola1; Kjällander, Susanne2; Järvelä, Sanna3
Organizations: 1Department of Education, University of Oslo
2Department of Child and Youth Studies, Stockholm University
3Department of Educational Sciences and Teacher Education, University of Oulu
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Scandinavian University Press, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-11-18


Digital technology has become increasingly central in curriculum plans during the last decade, but there is hardly any research about the curriculum in the digital age, nor about ‘digital competence’ as a new didactic area that has entered the educational field. In this article, we discuss and analyse two interrelated issues: first, on recent trends in curriculum developments in Norway, Sweden and Finland concerning digital competence; and, second, on related research initiatives of relevance for digital competence as an educational field. The article is based on a theoretically informed review of policy documents during the last decade and research initiatives in this field. The outcome of our study show that digital competence has become an increasingly complex concept, with a key emphasis in recent curricula, and is strongly linked to 21st century education. The article contributes to the ongoing debate about digital competence as part of contemporary educational strategies.

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Series: Nordic journal of digital literacy
ISSN: 0809-6724
ISSN-E: 1891-943X
ISSN-L: 0809-6724
Volume: 16
Issue: 2
Pages: 77 - 87
DOI: 10.18261/issn.1891-943x-2021-02-04
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 516 Educational sciences
Copyright information: © 2021 Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC 4.0 License (