University of Oulu

Tanaka, H.K.M., Aichi, M., Bozza, C. et al. First results of undersea muography with the Tokyo-Bay Seafloor Hyper-Kilometric Submarine Deep Detector. Sci Rep 11, 19485 (2021).

First results of undersea muography with the Tokyo-Bay Seafloor Hyper-Kilometric Submarine Deep Detector

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Author: Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.1,2; Aichi, Masaatsu1; Bozza, Cristiano3,2;
Organizations: 1University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
2International Virtual Muography Institute (VMI), Global, Tokyo, Japan
3The University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy
4Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy
5Durham University, Durham, UK
6Geoptic Ltd, London, UK
7Kerttu Saalasti Institute, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
8Muon Solutions Oy Ltd, Saarenkylä, Finland
9Arctic Planetary Science Institute, Rovaniemi, Finland
10NEC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan
11Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
12The University of Atacama, Copiapó, Chile
13The University of Catania, Catania, Italy
14Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy
15Kansai University, Osaka, Japan
16The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
17Boulby Underground Laboratory, Loftus, UK
18Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-11-18


Tidal measurements are of great significance since they may provide us with essential data to apply towards protection of coastal communities and sea traffic. Currently, tide gauge stations and laser altimetry are commonly used for these measurements. On the other hand, muography sensors can be located underneath the seafloor inside an undersea tunnel where electric and telecommunication infrastructures are more readily available. In this work, the world’s first under-seafloor particle detector array called the Tokyo-bay Seafloor Hyper-Kilometric Submarine Deep Detector (TS-HKMSDD) was deployed underneath the Tokyo-Bay seafloor for conducting submarine muography. The resultant 80-day consecutive time-sequential muographic data were converted to the tidal levels based on the parameters determined from the first-day astronomical tide height (ATH) data. The standard deviation between ATH and muographic results for the rest of a 79-day measurement period was 12.85 cm. We anticipate that if the length of the TS-HKMSDD is extended from 100 m to a full-scale as large as 9.6 km to provide continuous tidal information along the tunnel, this muography application will become an established standard, demonstrating its effectiveness as practical tide monitor for this heavy traffic waterway in Tokyo and in other important sea traffic areas worldwide.

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Series: Scientific reports
ISSN: 2045-2322
ISSN-E: 2045-2322
ISSN-L: 2045-2322
Volume: 11
Issue: 1
Article number: 19485
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-98559-8
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
Funding: This project was supported by the East Nippon Expressway Company Limited, the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Fruitful discussions with the Japan Coast Guard are also acknowledged. The authors presented this work on behalf of the MAGMA-HKMSDD Collaboration (see Supplementary Information 1).
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2021, corrected publication 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit