University of Oulu

Salonen, J., Lampela, H., Keskitalo, E., Vähänikkilä, H., Purokivi, M., & Kaarteenaho, R. (2020). Bronchoalveolar lavage differential cell count on prognostic assessment of patients with stable or acute interstitial lung disease: A retrospective real-life study. Clinical Immunology, 220, 108594.

Bronchoalveolar lavage differential cell count on prognostic assessment of patients with stable or acute interstitial lung disease : a retrospective real-life study

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Author: Salonen, Johanna1,2; Lampela, Henri1; Keskitalo, Eerika1;
Organizations: 1Respiratory Medicine, Research Unit of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Medical Research Center (MRC) Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, P. O. Box 20, 90029 OYS, Oulu, Finland
3Infrastructure of Population Studies, University of Oulu, P. O. BOX 8000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
4The Center of Medicine and Clinical Research, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, P. O. Box 100, 70029 KYS, Kuopio, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-09-12


BAL cell differential counts of 133 therapy naive ILD patients and 43 patients during acute exacerbation of ILD (AE-ILD) were retrospectively evaluated.

In the 20 patients who underwent BAL both at baseline and during an AE-ILD, there was an increase in neutrophils but a decrease in macrophages and eosinophils in the BAL obtained during AE-ILD. A detectable number of basophils at the baseline was a novel risk factor for earlier death and the occurrence of AE-ILD. Total BAL cell count >160 × 10⁹/L during AE-ILD was correlated with a more favorable prognosis. BAL cell counts <20% of lymphocytes or > 20% of neutrophils during AE-ILD were associated with shorter survival.

AE-ILD exerted significant changes in BAL cell profiles in individual patients. Several BAL-parameters correlated with survival of ILD patients; of these, baseline basophils and total cell count during AE-ILD were novel prognostic markers.

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Series: Clinical immunology
ISSN: 1521-6616
ISSN-E: 1521-7035
ISSN-L: 1521-6616
Volume: 220
Article number: 108594
DOI: 10.1016/j.clim.2020.108594
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Funding: This work was supported by the Foundation of the Finnish Anti-Tuberculosis Association, Ryttylä, Finland; Research Foundation of the Pulmonary Diseases HES, Helsinki, Finland; Jalmari and Rauha Ahokas Foundation, Helsinki, Finland and the Research Foundation of North Finland, Oulu, Finland. The funding sources were not involved in the study design, collection, analysis and interpretation of data, in the writing of the report or in the decision to submit the article for publication.
Copyright information: © 2020. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http:/