University of Oulu

Jaskari, M.; Ghosh, S.; Miettunen, I.; Karjalainen, P.; Järvenpää, A. Tensile Properties and Deformation of AISI 316L Additively Manufactured with Various Energy Densities. Materials 2021, 14, 5809.

Tensile properties and deformation of AISI 316L additively manufactured with various energy densities

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Author: Jaskari, Matias1; Ghosh, Sumit2; Miettunen, Ilkka2;
Organizations: 1Kerttu Saalasti Institute, University of Oulu, Pajatie 5, 85500 Nivala, Finland
2Materials and Mechanical Engineering, Centre of Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-11-24


Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging fabrication technology that offers unprecedented potential for manufacturing end-to-end complex shape customized products. However, building products with high performance by AM presents a technological challenge. Inadequate processing parameters, fabrication environment or changes in powder properties may lead to high defect density in the part and poor mechanical properties. Microstructure, defect structure, and mechanical properties of AISI 316L stainless steel pieces, additively manufactured by the laser powder bed fusion method using three different volume energy densities (VEDs), were investigated and compared with those of a commercial wrought AISI 316L sheet. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies were employed for characterization of grain and defect structures, and mechanical properties were determined by tensile testing. It was found that the number of defects such as pores and lack of fusion in AM specimens did not affect the strength, but they impaired the post-uniform elongation, more significantly when processed with the low VED. Twinning was found to be an active deformation mechanism in the medium and high VED specimens and in the commercially wrought material in the later stage of straining, but it was suppressed in the low VED specimens presumably because the presence of large voids limited the strain attained in the matrix.

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Series: Materials
ISSN: 1996-1944
ISSN-E: 1996-1944
ISSN-L: 1996-1944
Volume: 14
Issue: 19
Article number: 5809
DOI: 10.3390/ma14195809
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
214 Mechanical engineering
Funding: M.J. and A.J. are grateful for the support received from the European Union (European regional development fund) for the project “Metal 3D printing excellence” (M3D). S.G. and I.M. also acknowledge the funding of the Academy of Finland for the “Genome of Steel” project #311934.
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (