University of Oulu

Ojala, S.; Laitinen, T.; Leneuf de Neufville, S.; Honkanen, M.; Vippola, M.; Huuhtanen, M.; Keiski, R.L. Vanadia–Zirconia and Vanadia–Hafnia Catalysts for Utilization of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions. Materials 2021, 14, 5265.

Vanadia–zirconia and vanadia–hafnia catalysts for utilization of volatile organic compound emissions

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Author: Ojala, Satu1; Laitinen, Tiina1; Leneuf de Neufville, Sian2;
Organizations: 1Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
2Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Poitiers, Universite de Poitiers, 86000 Poitiers, France
3Tampere Microscopy Center, Tampere University, 33100 Tampere, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-11-24


Utilization is a sustainable and interesting alternative for the destructive treatment of volatile organic compounds due to avoided CO₂ emission. This work concentrates on the development of active and sulfur-tolerant catalysts for the utilization of contaminated methanol. Impregnated and sol–gel prepared vanadia–zirconia and vanadia–hafnia catalysts were thoroughly characterized by N₂ sorption, analytical (S)TEM, elemental analysis, XRD and Raman spectroscopy, and their performances were evaluated in formaldehyde production from methanol and methanethiol mixture. The results showed higher activity of the sol–gel prepared catalysts due to formation of mono- and polymeric vanadia species. Unfortunately, the most active vanadia sites were deactivated more easily than the metal-mixed oxide HfV₂O₇ and ZrV₂O₇ phases, as well as crystalline V₂O₅ observed in the impregnated catalysts. Metal-mixed oxide phases were formed in impregnated catalysts through formation of defects in HfO₂ and ZrO₂ structure during calcination at 600 °C, which was evidenced by Raman spectroscopy. The sol–gel prepared vanadia–zirconia and vanadia–hafnia catalysts were able to produce formaldehyde from contaminated methanol with high selectivity at temperature around 400 °C, while impregnated catalysts required 50–100 °C higher temperatures.

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Series: Materials
ISSN: 1996-1944
ISSN-E: 1996-1944
ISSN-L: 1996-1944
Volume: 14
Issue: 18
Article number: 5265
DOI: 10.3390/ma14185265
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
215 Chemical engineering
Funding: This research was funded by Erasmus+ programme (Poitiers-Oulu), Academy of Finland, ELECTRA-project, grant number 289266, Tauno Tönning Foundation, The Finnish Foundation for Technology Promotion and Riitta and Jorma J. Takanen foundation.
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (